- The bark and leaves are used medicinally. [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ju Shu, 榉树, 櫸
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Japanese Grey-Bark Elm, Japanese Zelkova, Keyaki, Saw-Leaf Zelkova, Water-Elm
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Korean:
Common Names in Lithuanian:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Turkish:
, deciduous. Branchlets
, never corky or winged
. Stipules 2, free
, linear-lanceolate, caducous
, leaving a short transverse
on each side of leaf base
. Leaves distichous, margin
serrate to crenate; venation
pinnate; secondary veins extending to margin, each ending in a tooth
. Flowers appearing at same time as leaves, polygamous. Male flowers: clustered in proximal
of young branchlets. Perianth campanulate
, 4-6(or 7) -lobed. Stamens equal in number to perianth lobes; filaments
. Female and bisexual
flowers: usually solitary or rarely 2-4-clustered in distal leaf axil of young branchlets. Perianth 4-6-parted, tepals imbricate. Staminodes absent or rarely developed. Ovary sessile; ovule pendulous, slightly amphitropous
. Style excentric. Drupes oblique
; endocarp hard; perianth persistent; stigmas beak-shaped. Seed slightly compressed
, apex concave
; endosperm absent; embryo curved
; cotyledons broad, apically slightly notched
to 2-lobed. 2n = 28.
Five species: E and SW Asia, SE Europe; three species (two endemic) in China.
Species Zelkova serrata
Trees , to 30 m tall, d.b.h. to 1 m, deciduous. Bark grayish white to grayish brown, exfoliating. Branchlets brownish purple to brown, pubescent or glabrescent . Winter buds conic-ovoid to ovoid . Stipules brownish purple, lanceolate, 7-9 mm. Petiole 2-6 mm, pubescent; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 3-10 × 1.5-5 cm, papery to thickly papery, glabrous or abaxially sparsely pubescent along veins, adaxially sparsely hispid , base slightly oblique , rounded , or shallowly cordate, margin serrate to crenate, apex caudate-acuminate; secondary veins 9-15 on each side of midvein . Male flowers: shortly pedicellate , ca. 3 mm in diam. Perianth (5 or) 7(or 8) -parted to middle . Female flowers: subsessile , ca. 1.5 mm in diam. Perianth 4- or 5(or 6) -parted. Ovary pubescent. Drupes pea green, subsessile, 2.5-3.5 mm in diam., surface covered by an irregular network of low ridges . Fl. Apr, fr. Sep-Nov. 2n = 28. [source]
ID Features: Short main trunk and low branching. Vase-shaped habit. Slender twigs with small dark, conical buds in a zigzag pattern. Smooth bark with lenticels or exfoliating in patches to reveal orange. inner bark.
Flowers: Not ornamental . Blooms in April. • Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: green
Seeds: Fruit: A small drupe. Not ornamentally important.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternately arranged deciduous leaves. Simple leaves. Margins toothed . Elliptical shape . Acuminate leaf tip . 1.25" to 3" long. 0.75" to 1.5" wide. Dark green color. • Fall foliage: Fall color is variable. A mix or yellow, russet, bronze, dark red and purple. Can be quite showy on good specimens.
Size: 50' to 70' tall, 30' wide.
Landscape Uses: Lawn tree . Urban areas. Possibly a street tree. Parks and campuses. For attractive bark characteristics. For vase-shape. • Liabilities: Twig dieback due to lack of cold hardiness . Japanese beetle feeding on foliage . Shows fairly good resistance to Dutch Elm Disease and bacterial canker ,. but not immune. • Care: Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease .
Valleys, beside streams
; 500-2000 m.
Anhui, Fujian, Gansu (Qin Ling),
N Guangdong, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning
(Dalian), Shaanxi (Qin Ling), Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang
[Japan, Korea, Russia (Kuril Islands)]. [source]
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 888 meters (0 to 2,913 feet).
Culture: Full sun . Prefers well-drained, moist, deep, fertile soil. Relatively tolerant of drought and pollution once established . Tolerant of a range of soils pHs. Easy to transplant and establish. Needs room to develop wide crown.
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full or part sun.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967) - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Zelkova
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 22 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
Z. carpinifolia (Caucasian Elm) · Z. schneideriana (Schneider Zelkova) · Z. serrata (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata var. Musasino (Japanese Zelkova) · Z. serrata 'Aurea' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Autumn Glow' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Goblin' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Goshiki' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Green Vase' (Green Vase Japanese Zelkova) · Z. serrata 'Green Veil' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Halka' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Illinois Hardy' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Low Weeper' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Musashino' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Nire' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Ogon' (Japanese Zelkova 'ogon') · Z. serrata 'Parkview' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Spring Grove' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Variegata' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Village Green' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Wireless' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. sinica (Chinese Zelkova)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- National Science Museum of Korea, National Science Museum of Korea Plant
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669829
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-505790
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13763365
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:858079-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 42215
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505790
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 202
- Liguo Fu, Yiqun Xin & Alan Whittemore "Zelkova". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 10. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 145.560 meters (477.559 feet), Standard Deviation = 215.600 based on 18 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]