- The bark and leaves are used medicinally. [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ju Shu, 榉树, 櫸
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Japanese Grey-Bark Elm, Japanese Zelkova, Keyaki, Saw-Leaf Zelkova, Water-Elm
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Korean:
Common Names in Lithuanian:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Turkish:
, deciduous. Branchlets
, never corky or winged
. Stipules 2, free
, linear-lanceolate, caducous
, leaving a short transverse
on each side of leaf base
. Leaves distichous, margin
serrate to crenate; venation
pinnate; secondary veins extending to margin, each ending in a tooth
. Flowers appearing at same time as leaves, polygamous. Male flowers: clustered in proximal
of young branchlets. Perianth campanulate
, 4-6(or 7) -lobed. Stamens equal in number to perianth lobes; filaments
. Female and bisexual
flowers: usually solitary or rarely 2-4-clustered in distal leaf axil of young branchlets. Perianth 4-6-parted, tepals imbricate. Staminodes absent or rarely developed. Ovary sessile; ovule pendulous, slightly amphitropous
. Style excentric. Drupes oblique
; endocarp hard; perianth persistent; stigmas beak-shaped. Seed slightly compressed
, apex concave
; endosperm absent; embryo curved
; cotyledons broad, apically slightly notched
to 2-lobed. 2n = 28.
Five species: E and SW Asia, SE Europe; three species (two endemic) in China.
Species Zelkova serrata
Trees , to 30 m tall, d.b.h. to 1 m, deciduous. Bark grayish white to grayish brown, exfoliating. Branchlets brownish purple to brown, pubescent or glabrescent . Winter buds conic-ovoid to ovoid . Stipules brownish purple, lanceolate, 7-9 mm. Petiole 2-6 mm, pubescent; leaf blade elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 3-10 × 1.5-5 cm, papery to thickly papery, glabrous or abaxially sparsely pubescent along veins, adaxially sparsely hispid , base slightly oblique , rounded , or shallowly cordate, margin serrate to crenate, apex caudate-acuminate; secondary veins 9-15 on each side of midvein . Male flowers: shortly pedicellate , ca. 3 mm in diam. Perianth (5 or) 7(or 8) -parted to middle . Female flowers: subsessile , ca. 1.5 mm in diam. Perianth 4- or 5(or 6) -parted. Ovary pubescent. Drupes pea green, subsessile, 2.5-3.5 mm in diam., surface covered by an irregular network of low ridges . Fl. Apr, fr. Sep-Nov. 2n = 28. [source]
ID Features: Short main trunk and low branching. Vase-shaped habit. Slender twigs with small dark, conical buds in a zigzag pattern. Smooth bark with lenticels or exfoliating in patches to reveal orange. inner bark.
Flowers: Not ornamental . Blooms in April. • Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: green
Seeds: Fruit: A small drupe. Not ornamentally important.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternately arranged deciduous leaves. Simple leaves. Margins toothed . Elliptical shape . Acuminate leaf tip . 1.25" to 3" long. 0.75" to 1.5" wide. Dark green color. • Fall foliage: Fall color is variable. A mix or yellow, russet, bronze, dark red and purple. Can be quite showy on good specimens.
Size: 50' to 70' tall, 30' wide.
Landscape Uses: Lawn tree . Urban areas. Possibly a street tree. Parks and campuses. For attractive bark characteristics. For vase-shape. • Liabilities: Twig dieback due to lack of cold hardiness . Japanese beetle feeding on foliage . Shows fairly good resistance to Dutch Elm Disease and bacterial canker ,. but not immune. • Care: Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease .
Valleys, beside streams
; 500-2000 m.
Anhui, Fujian, Gansu (Qin Ling),
N Guangdong, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning
(Dalian), Shaanxi (Qin Ling), Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang
[Japan, Korea, Russia (Kuril Islands)]. [source]
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 888 meters (0 to 2,913 feet).
Culture: Full sun . Prefers well-drained, moist, deep, fertile soil. Relatively tolerant of drought and pollution once established . Tolerant of a range of soils pHs. Easy to transplant and establish. Needs room to develop wide crown.
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full or part sun.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Zelkova
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 22 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
Z. carpinifolia (Caucasian Elm) · Z. schneideriana (Schneider Zelkova) · Z. serrata (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata var. Musasino (Japanese Zelkova) · Z. serrata 'Aurea' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Autumn Glow' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Goblin' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Goshiki' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Green Vase' (Green Vase Japanese Zelkova) · Z. serrata 'Green Veil' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Halka' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Illinois Hardy' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Low Weeper' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Musashino' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Nire' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Ogon' (Japanese Zelkova 'ogon') · Z. serrata 'Parkview' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Spring Grove' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Variegata' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Village Green' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. serrata 'Wireless' (Japanese Grey-Bark Elm) · Z. sinica (Chinese Zelkova)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 59 1996 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 138.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url p. 48.
- Chinese economic trees, [Shanghai]Printed by the Commercial Press, Ltd. url , , , , , , , , , p. 117, p. 118, p. 119, p. 20, p. 9.
- Cooperative economic insect report. Hyattsville, MD. [etc.]Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service. url p. 417, p. 445, p. 908, p. 915.
- Flora Malesiana. general editor, C.G.G.J. van Steenis. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff, 1950- url p. 35.
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 381.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1992 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 1203, p. 1348, p. 613, p. 649, p. 694, p. 894.
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 379.
- Illinois trees: selection, planting, and care [by] J. Cedric Carter. Urbana, 1966. url p. 122.
- Journal of the International Garden Club. New York, International garden club. url p. 379.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 18 1917 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 261.
- Landscaping your home / Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1975. url p. 226.
- Landscaping your home / William R. Nelson, Jr. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1975. url p. 226.
- Lepidopterous fauna of the USSR and adjacent countries: a collection of papers dedicated to professor Alexsandr Sergeevich Danilevskii / collected by O.L. Kryzhanovskii; Donald R. Davis, scientific editor; [translated from the Russian by P.M. Rao]. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1988. url p. 160, p. 161.
- List of intercepted plant pests / United States Department of Agriculture, Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. [Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.], 1932- url p. 27, p. 29, p. 467, p. 71.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , p. 2, p. 21, p. 22, p. 26.
- Longwood medical area: open space framework. 1986. url p. 7.
- Manual of vascular plants of the lower Yangtze Valley, China. Corvallis, Oregon State College url p. 84.
- Observations on the flora of Japan. Tokyo, 1901-1914. url p. 8.
- Pamphlets on forestry in Japan. [1900?- url , p. 36, p. 75.
- Plant health care for woody ornamentals: a professional's guide to preventing and managing environmental stresses and pests / [Urbana, Ill.]: Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, c1997. url p. 193, p. 197.
- Plant materials of decorative gardening; the woody plants. Urbana, The author, 1921. url p. 34.
- Plantae Wilsonianae; an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910, by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. Cambridge, University Press, 1913-17. url p. 287, p. 515, p. 516, p. 546, p. 555, p. 556, p. 557, p. 666.
- Plants for California landscapes: a catalog of drought tolerant plants. [Sacramento, Calif.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Water Resources,  url p. 35.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 1017.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 312, p. 312.
- Protected Landscapes: experience around the world. Prepared for the International Symposium on Protected Landscapes, Grange-over-Sands, England 5-10 October 1987 IUCN url p. 247, p. 254.
- Sargent, C. S. Plantae Wilsonianae: an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910 /by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. 3 1917 Cambridge: The University press, 1913-17. url p. 287, p. 515, p. 516, p. 546, p. 555, p. 556, p. 557, p. 666.
- Shade and ornamental trees of California. [Sacramento?][1922?] url .
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 461.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 55.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 41 1981 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 71.
- The conifers and taxads of Japan. Issued December 30, 1916. CambridgeUniversity Press1916 url p. 1, p. 36, p. 75.
- The greening of Boston: trees and shrubs in the city. 1978. url p. 12, p. 5.
- The romance of our trees, Garden City, New York, Doubleday, Page[c1920] url .
- The romance of our trees, by Ernest H. Wilson, illustrated from photographs. Garden City, New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1920. url p. 60.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2655, p. 3413, p. 3540.
- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url p. 920.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 146.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. 31 1942-1958 [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url .
- Transactions of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society. Edinburgh: Douglas & Foulis, 1888-1926. url p. 46.
- U.S. gardening guide: everything you need to know about how to make things grow / compiled by Jeffery Feinman. New York: Simon and Schuster, c1979. url p. 180, p. 181.
- Winter botany, a companion volume to the author's Plant materials of decorative gardening, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 40.
- Winter botany, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 40.
- Fu Likuo, Chen Chiajui & Tang Yancheng. 1998. Ulmaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 334, 413.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- National Science Museum of Korea, National Science Museum of Korea Plant
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669829
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-505790
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13763365
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:858079-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 42215
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505790
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 202
- Liguo Fu, Yiqun Xin & Alan Whittemore "Zelkova". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 10. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 145.560 meters (477.559 feet), Standard Deviation = 215.600 based on 18 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]