herbs, or shrubs
, rarely trees
to 30 m
tall, often with epidermal oil cells
, usually with internal phloem
. Leaves simple
, spirally arranged
, opposite, or occasionally whorled
, entire or toothed
; stipules present and usually caducous
, or absent. Flowers perfect
or occasionally unisexual
or zygomorphic, (2-) 4(-7) -merous, axillary
, in leafy spikes or racemes
or solitary, or occasionally in panicles, all but Ludwigia with distinct
within. Sepals green or colored
. Petals as many as sepals or rarely absent, variously colored, imbricate or convolute and occasionally clawed. Stamens as many as sepals in one series or 2 Ã— as many as sepals in 2 series [in Lopezia Cavanilles reduced to 2 or 1 plus 1 sterile
versatile or basifixed
, sometimes cross-partitioned, opening by longitudinal
slits; pollen grains
almost always united
by viscin threads, shed as monads
, or polyads
. Ovary inferior, with as many carpels and locules as sepals, septa sometimes thin or absent at maturity; placentation axile
, ovules 1 to many per locule, in 1 or several rows
or clustered, anatropous
, bitegmic; style 1; stigma with as many lobes
as sepals or clavate
. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or indehiscent nut or berry. Seeds small, smooth
or variously sculptured
, sometimes with a coma [or wing
], with straight oily embryo, endosperm lacking.
Seventeen genera and ca. 650 species: widespread in temperate and subtropical areas, but best represented in W North America; six genera (two introduced ), 64 species (11 endemic, 11 introduced), and five natural hybrids (two endemic) in China.
Onagraceae are a well-defined, monophyletic family in the order Myrtales, with a sister relationship to Lythraceae. Within the order Myrtales, the Onagraceae are distinguished by a number of features including (1) a distinctive 4-nucleate embryo sac; (2) abundant raphides in vegetative cells ; (3) paracrystalline beaded pollen ektexine; and (4) pollen with viscin threads.
Some species of Oenothera are grown for the oil in their seeds, which contains gamma linolenic acid (GLA), used for medicinal purposes. Several species of Onagraceae also are cultivated in China for their horticultural value, including species of Fuchsia Linnaeus (generally distinguished by having large, tubular , red or orange flowers and fleshy berries ) and Clarkia Pursh (distinguished by having stigmas with commissural lobes with dry, unicellular papillae, and dry, elongate capsules similar to those of Epilobium but lacking comas on the seeds) . The most commonly cultivated Fuchsia is F. Ã—hybrida Hort. and the related F. magellanica Lamarck in F. sect. Quelusia (Vandelli) Candolle from South America; F. triphylla Linnaeus, in F. sect. Fuchsia, from Hispaniola, is known from only one gathering in Fujian. Similarly, Clarkia amoena (Lehmann) A. Nelson & J. F. Macbride is widely cultivated in China, whereas C. pulchella Pursh is known from only one gathering in Xizang; both species are native to W North America. There are no naturalized species of either Clarkia or Fuchsia in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Flowering Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Magnoliophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Flowering Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Camissonia contorta (Douglas Ex Hook.) Kearney • Oenothera Cheiranthifolia Contorta • Oenothera cheiranthifolia Hornem. ex Spreng. var. contorta (Douglas Ex Hook.) H. Lév. • Oenothera contorta Douglas Ex Hook.
Members of the genus Sphaerostigma
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- American plants. .. [Descriptions, bibliographical notes, synonymy, and other information, comp. from many sources] Charles Russell Orcutt, editor. San Diego, Calif., -1910. url p. 711.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 202.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1920 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 395, p. 954.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 37 1969 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 345, p. 382, p. 383, p. 405, p. 406.
- Flora of southeastern Washington and adjacent Idaho / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: New Era, 1914. url p. 174.
- Flora of the northwest coast, including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon. Lancaster, Pa., Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1915. url .
- Flora of the northwest coast: including the area west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains, from the forty-ninth parallel south to the Calapooia Mountains on the south border of Lane County, Oregon / by Charles V. Piper and R. Kent Beattie. Lancaster, Pa.: Press of the New era printing company, 1915. url p. 253.
- Flora of the state of Washington / by Charles V. Piper. Washington: G.P.O., 1906 url p. 405.
- Flora of the state of Washington. By Charles V. Piper. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1906. url p. 405, p. 406.
- Muhlenbergia. Chico, Calif. [etc] url p. 104, p. 225.
- Chen Chiajui, Lu Shangzhi & Li Yibin. 2000. Onagraceae. In: Chen Chiajui, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 53(2): 27-133.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8821730
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15661156
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:614334-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3568572