Common Names in English:
Pinebarren Death Camas, Pine Barren Deathcamas, Pinebarren Deathcamas
, bulbous or rhizomatous
, all parts containing toxic
contractile. Leaves usually fewer than 10, mostly basal, alternate, simple
, distal ones reduced and grading
bracts, sometimes completely sheathing
at the base
entire. Inflorescences terminal
, racemose, corymbose
, or paniculate
, 5-125-flowered, glabrous. Flowers usually bisexual
, but often staminate
on branches in panicles, protandrous, pedicellate
; perianth hypogynous or partly perigynous, white or cream colored
to greenish or red tinged, actinomorphic
, 0.5-2 cm diam.; tepals 6, often connate
basally, each bearing 1 or 2, sometimes obscure
to absent, yellow to green, adaxially basal nectary glands
; stamens 6, anthers
, dehiscence transverse
or rarely introrse
(Z. glaberrimus) ; ovary partly inferior; pistil 1, with 3 styles, tapering from ovary; stigmas 3, barely larger than diameter of style, rudimentary
in staminate flowers
; pedicel ascending
, bracts 2, green to red and foliaceous
or white and membranous. Fruits capsular
, with 3 ellipsoid
; dehiscence septicidal, then adaxially loculicidal. Seeds 2-20 per capsule, elongate
, twisted and flattened at ends. x
= 8, 11, 26.
Species ca. 18-22: North America including Mexico, Central America, e Asia (Japan, e Siberia).
The generic name was spelled Zigadenus by Michaux, but subsequently was often rendered as Zygadenus, presumably to reflect the Greek word roots more clearly. However, the original spelling has priority over that orthographic variant (W. B . Zomlefer 1997b).
As broadly circumscribed here, Zigadenus is polyphyletic (W. B. Zomlefer 1997b; W. B. Zomlefer et al. 2001) and this complex has had a complicated taxonomic and nomenclatural history (R. R. Gates 1918; O. S. Walsh 1940; S. J. Preece 1956; F. C. Schwartz 1994; W. B. Zomlefer 1997b). Numerous , variously defined segregates have been recognized, including Anticlea, Chitonia, Cyanotris, Oceanoros, Toxicoscordion, and Tracyanthus. Zigadenus shows morphological similarities to both Stenanthium (including Stenanthella Rydberg) and Amianthium. The common name death camas is derived from the illness or death resulting from ingesting bulbs of Zigadenus that were mistaken for the edible ones of Camassia, an unrelated plant. Many alkaloids found in Veratrum have been isolated from most species of Zigadenus (W. B. Zomlefer 1997b; G. E. Burrows and R. J. Tyrl 2001), including zygadenine and zygacine (T. J. Gilbertson 1973; J. B. Harborne and H. Baxter 1993). All fresh parts of the plant (leaves, bulbs, flowers) are toxic. Dried parts (especially seeds and capsules) are even more potent, presumably because the alkaloids are more concentrated. Ingestion of Zigadenus by humans may result in severe illness and occasionally death even for adults . Livestock (sheep and cattle) poisoning is a serious problem in some rangeland areas of the western United States (C. D. Marsh and A. B. Clawson 1922; V. J. Tepidino 1982). Native Americans used these plants for their analgesic, antirheumatic, and emetic properties, as dermatological and orthopedic aids, and as a snake-bite remedy (D. E. Moerman 1986).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Liliales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Oceanorus leimanthoides (Gray) Small
: A.Gray Publication
: Manual (Gray), ed. 2. 476
Basionym : Melanthiaceae Amianthium leimanthoides A.Gray
Basionym author: (A.Gray)
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Place of publication: Manual ed. 2, 476. 1856
Name verified on 14-Mar-2003 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 14-Mar-2003
Members of the genus Zigadenus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 23 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
Z. brevibracteatus (Desert Death Camas) · Z. densus (Black Snakeroot) · Z. elegans (Elegant Camas) · Z. elegans glaucus (Mountain Deathcamas) · Z. exaltatus (Giant Death Camas) · Z. fremontii (Death Camas) · Z. fremontii var. fremontii (Fremont's Deathcamas) · Z. glaberrimus (Atlantic Death Camas) · Z. glaucus glaucus (Mountain Deathcamas) · Z. leimanthoides (Pinebarren Death Camas) · Z. micranthus (Small-Flowered Death Camas) · Z. micranthus var. fontanus (Smallflower Deathcamas) · Z. micranthus var. micranthus (Smallflower Deathcamas) · Z. mogollonensis (Mogoll Deathcamas) · Z. nuttallii (Nuttall Deathcamas) · Z. paniculatus (Foothill Deathcamas) · Z. vaginatus (Sheathed Death Camas) · Z. venenosus (Death Camas) · Z. venenosus var. gramineus (Grassy Deathcamas) · Z. venenosus var. venenosus (Death Camas) · Z. venosus (Death Camas) · Z. virescens (Green Death Camas) · Z. volcanicus (Lava Deathcamas)
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- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 342.
- Aquatic and wetland plants of southwestern United States, by Donovan S. Correll and Helen B. Correll. [Washington]Environmental Protection Agency; [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1972. url p. 650, p. 653.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 29 - 41 1957 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 9.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 13, p. 14, p. 15, p. 17, p. 18, p. 237, p. 238.
- Flora of the southern United States, containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida; arranged according to the natural system by A.W. Chapman. New York, American Book Company url p. 488.
- Novon a journal of botanical nomenclature from the Missouri Botanical Garden. 12 2002 St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden, url p. 299, p. 302, p. 304.
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url .
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 342.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 54, p. 86.
- Frame, D. M. 1999. A conspectus of Mexican Melanthiaceae including a description of new taxa of Schoenocaulon and Zigadenus. Acta Bot. Mex. 48: 27-50.
- Hess, W. J. and R. C. Sivinski. 1995. A new species of Zigadenus (Liliaceae) from New Mexico, with additional comments on the section Anticlea. Sida 16: 389-400.
- Preece, S. J. 1956. A Cytotaxonomic Study of the Genus Zigadenus (Liliaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. State College of Washington [Washington State University].
- Schwartz, F. C. 1994. Molecular Systematics of Zigadenus Section Chitonia (Liliaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington.
- Walsh, O. S. 1940. A Systematic Study of the Genus Zigadenus Michx. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662759
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-43164
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13754870
- GRIN Nomen Number: 410357
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43164
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: OCLE2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 51315