Common Names in English:
Fairy Lily, Rain Lily, Zephyr Lily
, rarely shrubby or treelike, often with bulbs, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Leaves basal or cauline, often narrow, margin
entire or spiny
. Inflorescence a terminal
spike, umbel, raceme
, panicle, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually subtended by 1 to several spathaceous
involucres. Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, free
to form a short tube
, with or without a corona
. Stamens 6, inserted
at perianth throat or at base
of segments; filaments
sometimes basally connate; anther
, mostly introrse
. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules few to many per locule; placentation axile
. Style slender; stigma capitate or 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, usually loculicidal, sometimes dehiscing irregularly, rarely a berry. Seeds with endosperm.
More than 100 genera and 1200 species: tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions worldwide; ten genera and 34 species (14 endemic, four introduced ) in China.
, from bulbs. Bulbs black or brown, tunicate
, sometimes with long neck. Leaves sessile, erect
, with overlapping sheathing
, rarely exceeding 1 cm wide, smooth
. Scape hollow. Inflorescence 1-flowered (rarely 2-flowered in Z. drummondii), spathaceous
, otherwise ebracteate
. Flowers erect to declinate
; perianth subrotate to funnelform
basally into tube
, 2-16 cm; tepals subequal
; stamens 6, of 2 different lengths
, appearing equal or subequal (anthers
in 2 overlapping sets
of 3) to unequal (anthers of the sets not overlapping in Z. longifolia) ; filaments
just above perianth tube, erect, diverging except when shorter than tube, long-filiform to short-subulate, those inserted on distal tepals usually 1+ mm longer
than those inserted on proximal
ones; anthers submedially dorsifixed
, usually parallel with floral
axis, linear-oblong; ovary inferior; style filiform
; stigma capitate or 3-fid with lobes
linear; pedicel sometimes absent, hollow. Fruits capsular
, thin-walled, 3-locular, subglobose or ± oblate
. Seeds numerous
, black, flat, D- or wedge-shaped, lustrous
Species ca. 70: se and sc United States, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America.
In Zephyranthes, the degree of fusion of the perianth into a tube is reflected in flower form, filament length, staminal position, and the opening of the bud. Flowers with much-abbreviated perianth tubes are subrotate; with increasing degrees of perianth fusion, flower form shifts from subrotate to funnelform to salverform. The more the perianth is fused, the shorter the filaments in relative length. The longer the perianth tube, the less the stamens diverge, to the point of fasciculation. The timing of the opening of the bud and the expansion of the flower runs across this morphological spectrum from early morning (shortest tubes) through the day to the evening (longest tubes).
The phylogeny of Zephyranthes is not well understood. The species with long perianth tubes and fasciculate stamens are sometimes segregated in the genus Cooperia. While there is considerable diversity within Zephyranthes, splitting the genus into two genera by the degree of fusion of the perianth tube does not fit well with the continuity of the morphological spectrum and with the apparent hybrid origins of species in Texas and Mexico. By and large, species with linear stigmatic lobes bloom mid winter-spring-summer, while those with capitate stigmas bloom summer-fall. Many species with linear stigmatic lobes have leaves over 5 mm wide, but such wide leaves are not known in species with capitate stigmas. Whether there is particular generic significance in differences in stigmatic lobes (linear or capitate) or in filaments (filiform or subulate , and apically acute or blunt ) remains to be discovered.
The perianth tube as a portion of the perianth, the relative lengths of the filaments and perianth tube, the type of stigma, the spatial relationships of the stamens, and the position of the stigma relative to the anthers are critical characteristics in the separation of species of Zephyranthes. These characteristics, especially the capitate stigma, can be very difficult to determine in herbarium specimens, but reasonable determinations can usually be achieved with strong backlighting and practice. For consistency, almost all measurements given herein are from herbarium specimens. The width of the leaf shrinks in pressing and drying; generally the maximum width of a fresh leaf could be about one and one half that reported here.
It has been thought that pedicels are consistently either present or absent in species of Zephyranthes. This is belied by the occurrence of both pedicellate and sessile flowers within each of the three species (Z. atamasca, Z. treatiae, and Z. simpsonii) native to the southeastern United States.
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August, September. • Flower Color: lavender, mauve , rose, violet
Size: 6-12" tall.
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Bromhead, 1838
- Family: Amaryllidaceae () - Jaume Saint-Hilaire, 1805, nom. cons. - Amaryllis Family
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Zephyranthes
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 96 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
Z. 'Ajax' (Fairy Lily) · Z. albiella (Fairy Lily) · Z. albolilacinus (Fairy Lily) · Z. arenicola (Fairy Lily) · Z. atamasca (Atamasco Lily) · Z. atamasca (L.) Herb. var. treatiae (S.Watson) Meerow (Atamasco Lily) · Z. atamasca var. atamasca (Atamasco Lily) · Z. atamasca var. treatiae (Atamasco Lily) · Z. atamasco (Atamasco Lily) · Z. aurea (Fairy Lily) · Z. bella (Fairy Lily) · Z. bifolia (Fairy Lily) · Z. boliviensis (Fairy Lily) · Z. candida (Autumn Zephyrlily) · Z. capivarina (Fairy Lily) · Z. cearensis (Fairy Lily) · Z. challensis (Fairy Lily) · Z. chlorosolen (Cooperia) · Z. chrysantha (Fairy Lily) · Z. citrina (Citron Zephyrlily) · Z. concolor (Fairy Lily) · Z. crociflora (Fairy Lily) · Z. cutleri (Fairy Lily) · Z. dichromantha (Fairy Lily) · Z. erubescens (Fairy Lily) · Z. filifolia (Fairy Lily) · Z. flava (Fairy Lily) · Z. flavissima (Yellow Rain Lily) · Z. fosteri (Fairy Lily) · Z. grandiflora (Fairy Lily) · Z. guatemalensis (Fairy Lily) · Z. huastecana (Fairy Lily) · Z. katherinae (Fairy Lily) · Z. katherinae 'Jacala Crimson' (Fairy Lily) · Z. labufarosea (Fairy Lily) · Z. latissimafolia (Fairy Lily) · Z. leucantha (Fairy Lily) · Z. lindleyana (Fairy Lily) · Z. lindleyana 'Horsetail Falls' (Fairy Lily) · Z. longifolia (Copper Zephyr-Lily) · Z. longituba (Fairy Lily) · Z. macrosiphon (Fairy Lily) · Z. macrosiphon 'Hidalgo Form' (Fairy Lily) · Z. mesochloa (Fairy Lily) · Z. mesochloa 'Flavescens' (Fairy Lily) · Z. mesochloa 'Rosea' (Fairy Lily) · Z. minima (Fairy Lily) · Z. miradorensis (Fairy Lily) · Z. moctezumae (Fairy Lily) · Z. morrisclintii (Morris-Clints Rain Lily) · Z. nelsonii (Fairy Lily) · Z. nervosa (Fairy Lily) · Z. nymphaea (Fairy Lily) · Z. plumieri (Fairy Lily) · Z. primulina (Fairy Lily) · Z. puertoricensis (Fairy Lily) · Z. pulchella (Fairy Lily) · Z. pusilla (Fairy Lily) · Z. refugiensis (Refugio Zephyr Lily) · Z. reginae 'Valles Yellow' (Queens Rain Lily) · Z. rosalensis (Fairy Lily) · Z. rosea (Cuban Zephyrlily) · Z. simpsonii (Carolina Atamasco Lily) · Z. stellaris (Rain Lily) · Z. subflava (Fairy Lily) · Z. traubii (Traubs Rain Lily) · Z. traubii 'San Carlos Form' (Mexican Rain Lily) · Z. verecunda (Fairy Lily) · Z. verecunda 'Rosea' (Fairy Lily) · Z. wrightii (Fairy Lily) · Z. x flaggii 'Panama Pink' (Fairy Lily) · Z. zeyheri (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Apricot Queen' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Aquarius' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Bayberry Bells' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Benidama' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Big Shot' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Bronze Beauty' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Ellen Korsakoff' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'El Cielo' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Fireball' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Grandjax' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Ivory Star' (Cooperia) · Z. 'Labuffarosea' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Laredo Yellow' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'La Siberica' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Libra' (Libra Rain Lily Zephyranthes) · Z. 'Lily Pies' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Prairie Sunset' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Ruth Page' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Starfrost' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Sunset Strain' (Sunset Rain Lily) · Z. 'Teddy Buhler' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'Tenexio Apricot' (Rain Lily) · Z. 'Twinkle' (Fairy Lily) · Z. 'White Swan' (Fairy Lily)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Qian Xiao-hu, Chen Sing-chi, Hsu Yin, Hu Zhi-bi, Huang Xiu-lan & Fan Quan-jin. 1985. Amaryllidaceae. In: Pei Chien & Ting Chih-tsun, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(1): 1--42.
- Flagg, R. O. 1961. Investigations in the Tribe Zephyrantheae of the Amaryllidaceae. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Virginia.
- Flagg, R. O. and W. S. Flory. 1976. Origins of three Texas species of Zephyranthes. Pl. Life 32: 67-80.
- Flory, W. S. and R. O. Flagg. 1981. Pyrolirion and Zephyranthes: Distinct genera. Bol. Soc. Brot., ser. 2, 53: 1197-1210.
- Sealy, J. R. 1937. Zephyranthes, Pyrolirion, Habranthus and Hippeastrum. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 62: 195-209.
- Spencer, L. B. 1973. A Monograph of the Genus Zephyranthes (Amaryllidaceae) in North and Central America. Ph.D. dissertation. Wake Forest University.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 948401
- Zhanhe Ji & Alan W. Meerow "Amaryllidaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 264. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Raymond O. Flagg, Gerald L. Smith & Walter S. Flory "Zephyranthes". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 55, 281, 282, 296, 297, 298, 299, 303. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]