Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Quan Yuan Da Su Tie
Common Names in English:
Coontie, Coontie (Seminole), Florida Arrowroot, Koonti, Seminole Bread (Usa), Smooth Zamia
superficially palmlike or fernlike, perennial
, dioecious. Stems subterranean
with exposed apex or aboveground, fleshy
, stout, cylindric
or irregularly branched. Roots
with small secondary roots; coral-like roots developing at base
of stem at or below soil surface. Leaves pinnately compound
, spirally clustered at stem apex, leathery, petiole
and rachis unarmed
[with stout spines]; leaflets
entire or dentate
]; resin canals absent. Cones axillary
, appearing terminal
, short-peduncled [sessile], disintegrating at maturity; sporophylls densely crowded, spirally arranged
, often covered with indument
. Pollen cones soon shed, generally smaller and more numerous
than seed cones; sporophylls bearing many crowded, small microsporangia (pollen sacs
) adaxially; pollen spheric, not winged
. Seed cones persistent
for a year or more, 1(--2) per plant, nearly globose
, tapering sharply or blunt
at apex; sporophylls peltate, thickened and laterally expanded distally, bearing 2(--3) ovules. Seeds angular, inner coat
hardened, outer coat fleshy, often brightly colored
; cotyledons 2.
Genera 9, species ca. 100 (1 genus, 1 species in the flora ) : primarily tropical to warm temperate regions , North Americ, Central America, South America, Africa, Australia.
Stems often branched, subterranean
to aboveground. Leaves broadly oblong-elliptic; leaflets
entire to coarsely dentate
, without midribs
dichotomous but appearing parallel. Cones distinctly peduncled. Pollen cones more slender than seed cones. x
Species ca. 30: subtropics and tropics, North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America.
Species Zamia integrifolia
, or leaf-bearing apex exposed. Leaves 2--10 dm;
6--17 cm × 2--18 mm, linear
, often twisted,
very stiff, dark glossy green, 7--23-veined; margins
entire or with small teeth to slight denticulations near apex. Pollen
cones generally 2--5 per plant, narrowly cylindric
, 5--16 cm, tapering
slightly at apex. Seed cones cylindric-ellipsoid, 5--19 cm, blunt
at apex; ovules 2 per sporophyll. Seeds drupelike, oblong
somewhat angular, 1.5--2 cm, outer coat
bright orange. 2 n = 16.Period
of receptivity and maturation
of seeds December--March. [source]
Controversy has long existed over the classification of Zamia in Florida. Recent researchers, however, have concluded that only one species is present in the flora . The several binomials applied to our Zamia reflect variability in plant vigor, leaf shape , leaflet width, number of marginal teeth and veins per leaflet, and geographic distribution. Forms with wide leaflets---" Zamia umbrosa "---are restricted to coastal hammocks of northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia and appear to be quite distinct from plants of the remainder of Florida--- Z. integrifolia and " Z. floridana." Especially robust forms have been described as " Zamia silvicola." Studies by D. B . Ward (n.d.) indicate that these features have a genetic basis, but formal recognition of these different phases as species does not lead to better understanding of the complex . The variants in Florida may have originated from introductions of divergent forms of Zamia from elsewhere. The starchy stems, after treatment to remove a poisonous principle, were a significant part of aboriginal diets , and the plants were presumably dispersed by aborigines. [source]
Zamia angustifolia Jacquin, a species thought to be restricted to the Bahamas and eastern Cuba, was reported in southern Florida by J. K . Small (1933). No voucher specimens were cited or are known to exist. Small also reported Zamia pumila Linnaeus from Florida, although erroneously. [source]
Flowers: Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 36-48" tall.
Hammocks , pine-oak woodlands, scrub , and shell mounds; 0--30 m (Ref. 111029).
Biome: Terrestrial .
of Z. integrifolia vary from open coastal areas
and sand dunes to pinelands and closed
. This cycad is most commonly found in soil over limestone
and in sand near sea level or in dry pinelands subjected to periodic
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.5 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry [more info]
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun to partial shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Pax, in K.A.E. Prantl, 1894
- Pers. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, 1820
- Horaninow, 1834
- Sago-palm Family
- C. Linnaeus, 1763, nom. cons.
- [Derivation equivocal, perhaps from misreading of Latin azania, a kind of pine cone, or from Latin zamia, loss, from the "sterile appearance" of the pollen cones]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Zamia integrifolia L.f.
- Specific epithet: integrifolia - L.f.
- Genus: Zamia () - C. Linnaeus, 1763, nom. cons. - [Derivation equivocal, perhaps from misreading of Latin azania, a kind of pine cone, or from Latin zamia, loss, from the "sterile appearance" of the pollen cones]
- Tribe: Zamieae ()
- Family: Zamiaceae () - Horaninow, 1834 - Sago-palm Family
- Order: Cycadales () - Pers. ex Bercht. & J. Presl, 1820
- Subclass: Cycadidae () - Pax, in K.A.E. Prantl, 1894
- Class: Cycadopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Cycadophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Cycads
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Zamia floridana • Zamia floridana A. de Candolle • Zamia media • Zamia silvicola • Zamia silvicola Small • Zamia tenuis • Zamia umbrosa • Zamia umbrosa Small
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 2004
Members of the genus Zamia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 29 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
Z. acuminata (Nicaragua Palm) · Z. amplifolia (Zamia) · Z. angustifolia (Zamia) · Z. dressleri (Zamia) · Z. encephalartoides (Zamia) · Z. fairchildiana (Palma De Pegamento) · Z. fischeri (Cycad) · Z. floridana 'Auero-variegated' (Coontie) · Z. floridanus (Coontie) · Z. furfuracea (Cardboard Palm) · Z. herrerae (Zamia) · Z. inermis (Cycad) · Z. integrifolia (Coontie) · Z. loddigesii (Zamia) · Z. manicata (Zamia) · Z. poeppigiana (Zamia) · Z. polymorpha (Zamia) · Z. portoricensis (Zamia) · Z. prasina (Zamia) · Z. pseudomonticola (Zamia) · Z. pseudoparasitica (Zamia) · Z. pumila (Arrow-Root) · Z. skinneri (Zamia) · Z. soconuscensis (Zamia) · Z. spartea (Zamia) · Z. standleyi (Camotillo) · Z. vasquezii (Cycad) · Z. vazquezii (Little Chamal (N?h.chamalillo)) · Z. verschaffeltii (Zamia)
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5952285
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: IOP-454797
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13691572
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:297309-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 42168
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 1170177-1
- IUCN ID: 249485
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1036237
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