Common Names in English:
European Chain Fern, Rooting Chainfern
, mostly terrestrial
, occasionally on rock or epiphytic. Stems creeping
to suberect or ascending
, sometimes climbing
], slender to stout, dictyostelic, scaly
. Leaves monomorphic
, large and coarse
, generally greater than 30 cm, often exceeding 1 m.
, generally more than 2 vascular bundles
arranged in arc, generally scaly at least at base
(reddish) when young, pinnatifid
] to pinnate-pinnatifid or 2-pinnate [rarely decompound
or occasionally bearing scales
or capitate glands
. Rachis frequently grooved
adaxially. Veins of sterile
leaves generally free
, rarely anastomosing, veins of fertile
to form sorus-bearing secondary vein
parallel to costa or costule
commisure), sometimes anastomosing further. Sori elongate
along secondary vein; indusia present [rarely absent], opening along costal side of fertile vein, frequently hidden by dehisced sporangia; sporangial
of 3 rows
. Spores monolete, reniform
present, variously ornamented. Gametophytes green, cordate, sometimes bearing capitate hairs, antheridia and archegonia borne on lower surface.
Genera ca. 10, species ca. 250 (2 genera, 6 species in the flora ) : mostly tropical and south temperate (except Woodwardia, which is north temperate) .
Circumscription of genera is controversial, especially as to placement of those species now included in Blechnum . Characteristics holding the family together include the anastomoses of veins along the axes of the blade to form a series of areoles or a single continuous vein along which the sorus is borne, elongate sori with indusia opening toward midvein , bilateral spores, and chromosome base numbers of generally x = 28--36. Relationships of the family with both dryopteroid and athyrioid ferns have been suggested.
or rarely on rock. Stems long-creeping to erect
, slender to stout, not climbing
brown. Leaves monomorphic
in 1 species), clustered or well separated. Blades
pinnate or pinnatifid
. Rachises and costae scaly
. Veins anastomosing in both sterile
leaves, forming a regular series of areoles along costae and costules
, further anastomosing in 1 species. Sori discrete, in chainlike rows
along costae or costules, extending only the length
of individual areolar veins. Spores with perine
irregularly folded. x
= 34, 35.
Species 14: North America, Central America, Mediterranean Europe, e Asia.
Flowers: Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 36-48" tall.
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Cronquist et al.
- Order: Polypodiales () - Link
- Class: Polypodiopsida () - Cronquist et al.
- Infraphylum: Moniliformopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, Nom. Nud.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Sm. Publication
: M?m. Acad. Roy. Sci. (Turin)
5. 412. 1793. HB. 188. Chr. 186. NPfl. 253
Basionym author: (L.)
Members of the genus Woodwardia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
W. areolata (Chainfern) · W. fimbriata (Giant Chain Fern) · W. orientalis (Oriental Chain Fern) · W. orientalis var. formosana (Oriental Chain Fern) · W. radicans (European Chain Fern) · W. unigemmata (Chain Fern) · W. virginica (Virginia Chain Fern)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Spain, Aranzadi Zientzi Elkartea
- GBIF-Spain, CIBIO, Alicante:ABH-GBIF
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario de la Universidad de Sevilla, SEV
- GBIF-Spain, Jardi Botanic de Valencia: VAL
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Univ. Herbarium SALAMANCA: SALA
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas: FCO
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad del País Vasco/EHU, Bilbao: Herbario BIO
- Herbario SANT, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SANT herbarium vascular plant collection
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO, Herbarium GJO
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669801
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-505758
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:17365500-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 42059
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505758
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 17365500
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PPBLE05030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: WORA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 68634