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Vitis vinifera vinifera

(Cultivated Winegrape)

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Bulgarian:

Vino

Common Names in English:

Cultivated Winegrape, Grape, Vine, Wine Grape

Common Names in Finnish:

Viiniköynnös

Common Names in French:

Lambrusque, Vigne, Vigne Commune, Vigne Vinifère

Common Names in German:

Weinrebe

Common Names in Italian:

Ambrusca, Lambrusca, Lebrusca, Vite, Vite Coltivata, Vite Selvatica, Zampino

Common Names in Portuguese:

Vinha, Vinho

Common Names in Russian:

Vinograd, Vinograd Kul´turnyi, виноград

Common Names in Spanish:

Parra, Vid, Vid Común, Vino

Common Names in Swedish:

Vinranka

Description

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Family Vitaceae

Woody climbers , sometimes vines , rarely small succulent trees , hermaphroditic or polygamo-monoecious to polygamo-dioecious . Stems unarmed , sometimes with conspicuous lenticels , or bark sometimes shredding (in most species of Vitis) ; branches often swollen at 3-7-lacunar nodes; pith continuous or interrupted by diaphragms at nodes; tendrils simple , bifurcate to trifurcate , or 4-12-branched (in Parthenocissus), usually leaf-opposed, rarely tendrils absent. Raphide sacs present in parenchymatous tissues . Leaves simple, lobed or unlobed, or digitately or pedately compound to 1-3-pinnately compound, alternate, distichous, variously toothed , commonly with multicellular , stalked , caducous spherical structures known as "pearl" glands ; stipules 2 or rarely absent, often caducous. Flowers small, with prophylls, in panicles, corymbs, or rarely spikes, often leaf-opposite, pseudo-terminal , or axillary (in Cayratia and Tetrastigma), actinomorphic , hypogynous, 4- or 5(-7 as in Rhoicissus) -merous. Calyx with 4 or 5(-7) small teeth or lobes or a continuous ring. Petals valvate , 4 or 5(-7), free or basally connate , or distally connate forming a calyptra (e.g. , in Vitis) . Stamens 4 or 5(-7), antepetalous ; anthers introrse , dehiscing longitudinally, tetrasporangiate or rarely bisporangiate . Floral disk intrastaminal , ring-shaped, cupular, or gland-shaped. Ovary superior, 2-loculed; ovules 2 per locule; placentation axile , appearing nearly basal, apotropous or anatropous , bitegmic, crassinucellar; style simple, connate; stigma discoid or capitate, rarely 4-lobed (Tetrastigma), not papillate . Fruit a berry, 1-4-seeded. Seeds endotestal, with an abaxial chalazal knot and an adaxial raphe with 2 furrows , one on each side; embryo straight, small; endosperm oily, proteinaceous, copious , ruminate .

About 14 genera and ca. 900 species: worldwide, but mostly in tropical and subtropical regions; eight genera and 146 species (87 endemic, two introduced ) in China.

The family is important for grapes, wine, and raisins (especially Vitis vinifera, and several other species and hybrids of Vitis) . There are a few ornamental climbers in the genera Ampelopsis, Cissus, Parthenocissus, and Tetrastigma, of which Parthenocissus tricuspidata of China and Japan and P. quinquefolia of eastern North America are well-known examples. Some plants (e.g., Ampelopsis japonica, Cissus quadrangularis, and Tetrastigma hemsleyanum) are highly regarded medicines.[1]

Genus Vitis

Lianas, woody, usually polygamo-dioecious , rarely hermaphroditic . Bark usually shedding; tendrils leaf-opposed, usually bifurcate . Leaves simple , often lobed , sometimes palmately compound ; stipules usually caducous . Inflorescence a thyrse . Flowers 5-merous. Calyx saucer-shaped ; sepals minute. Petals united at apex and shed as a cap (calyptra) at anthesis . Stamens opposite to petals, undeveloped and abortive in female flowers. Disk conspicuous , 5-lobed or ring-shaped. Pistil 1; style slender; stigma slightly expanded. Berry globose , 2-4-seeded. Seeds obovoid or obovoid-elliptic, base rostrate , abaxially 1-furrowed with a rounded or suborbicular or elliptic chalazal knot , adaxially 2-furrowed; endosperm M-shaped in cross-section.

About 60 species: mostly in temperate regions , extending to the subtropics with the species diversity primarily in China and E North America; 37 species (30 endemic, one introduced ) in China.

Vitis vinifera Linnaeus, the well-known source plant for grapes and wine, has a long history of cultivation all over the world. The wild grape species are primarily distributed in three centers of diversity : East Asia, North to Central America, and Europe to Central Asia. In China, Vitis occurs naturally in all provinces except Xinjiang, Qinghai, Nei Mongol, and Ningxia. The roots , stems, and leaves of several wild species are used as medicine; the berries are edible or used to make wine; and the seeds are sometimes used for oil .[2]

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Cissus vinifera (L.) Kuntze

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Vitis

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 142 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

V. acerifolia (Bush Grape) · V. aconitifolia (Monkshoodvine) · V. aestivalis (Pigeon Grape) · V. aestivalis var. aestivalis (Summer Grape) · V. aestivalis var. bicolor (Summer Grape) · V. aestivalis var. lincecumii (Pinewoods Grape) · V. amurensis (Amur Grape) · V. arborea (Peppervine) · V. arizonica (Arizona Grape) · V. bourquina (Grape) · V. brevipedunculata (Amur Peppervine) · V. californica (California Grape) · V. californica 'Roger' (Roger's California Grape) · V. champinii (Champin's Grape) · V. cinerea (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea Engelm. var. baileyana (Munson) Comeaux (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea Engelm. var. floridana Munson (Florida Grape) · V. cinerea Engelm. var. helleri (Bailey) M.O.Moore (Heller's Grape) · V. cinerea var. baileyana (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea var. cinerea (Graybark Grape) · V. cinerea var. floridana (Currant Grape) · V. cinerea var. helleri (Grapevine Rootstock) · V. coignetiae (Crimson Glory Vine) · V. coignetiae 'Frovit' (Crimson Glory Vine) · V. davidii (Spiny Grape) · V. doaniana (Doan's Grape) · V. girdiana (Desert Wild Grape) · V. labrusca (Fox Grape) · V. labruscana (Grape) · V. labrusca 'Alwood' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Catawba' (Catawba Grape) · V. labrusca 'Concord' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Delaware' (Delaware Grape) · V. labrusca 'Eastern Concord' (Eastern Concord Grape) · V. labrusca 'Fredonia' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Glenora' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Himrod' (Himrod Grape) · V. labrusca 'Marquis' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Niagara' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Suffolk' (Fox Grape) · V. labrusca 'Venus Seedless' (Grape) · V. monticola (Mountain Grape) · V. mustangensis (Mustang Grape) · V. novae-angliae (Pilgrim Grape) · V. palmata (Catbird Grape) · V. quadrangularis (Winged Treebine) · V. rhombifolia (Grape-Ivy) · V. riparia (Frost Grape) · V. riparia 'Beta' (Beta River-Bank Grape Vitis Riparia) · V. rotundifolia (Bullace) · V. rotundifolia var. munsoniana (Munson's Grape) · V. rotundifolia var. rotundifolia (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Black Beauty' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Black Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Carlos' (Bullace) · V. rotundifolia 'Cowart' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Darlene' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Dixieland' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Dixie Red' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Early Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Farrer' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Florida Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Fry' (Bullace) · V. rotundifolia 'Fry Seedless' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Granny Val' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Higgins' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Hunt' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Ison' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Janebell' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Janet' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Jumbo' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Late Fry' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Magnolia' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Nesbit' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Noble' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Pam' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Pineapple' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Rosa' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Scarlet' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Scuppernong' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Southland' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Sugargate' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Summit' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Supreme' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Sweet Jenny' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Tara' (Muscadine) · V. rotundifolia 'Triumph' (Muscadine) · V. rupestris (Sand Grape) · V. shuttleworthii (Calloose Grape) · V. sicyoides (Pudding-Whit) · V. slavinii (Slavin's Grape) · V. tiliifolia (West Indian Grape) · V. vinifera (Wild Grape) · V. vinifera L. 'Boskoop Glory' (Blue Table Grape) · V. vinifera sylvestris (Wild Grape) · V. vinifera vinifera (Cultivated Winegrape) · V. vinifera [infrasp.unranked] caribaea (Common Grapevine) · V. vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Grape Vine) · V. vinifera 'Chasselas De Moissac' (Dessert Grape) · V. vinifera 'Flame Seedless' (Flame Seedless Grape)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Prof. Zhiduan Chen, Hui Ren & Jun Wen "Vitaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 33, 115, 173. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Hui Ren & Jun Wen "Vitis". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 173, 210. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-12