, or rarely treelike, with milky
or, less often, clear latex. Leaves simple
, opposite or occasionally whorled
, very rarely alternate, usually without obvious stipules, margin
nearly always entire. Inflorescences terminal
, or extra-axillary
, often condensed and umbel-like, occasionally a racemelike bostrychium. Flowers bisexual
, 5-merous, actinomorphic
. Sepals joined at base
only, often with 5 or more basal glands
in the sinuses. Corolla sympetalous
or overlapping in bud to right
or left. Corona
usually present, inserted
on corolla, stamens, or both. Stamens 5, usually inserted at base of corolla tube
and adhering to stigma head
to form gynostegium; filaments
to form a tube enclosing ovaries; anthers
4-celled (Periplocoideae and Secamonoideae) or 2-celled (Asclepiadoideae), often with a membranous apical appendage
; pollen tetrads
contained loosely on a spatulate
with a basal corpusculum (Periplocoideae), or pollen united into waxy pollinia, each attached through a caudicle
) to the retinaculum (gland
) between adjacent
anthers to form a pollinarium
, pollinia 2 (Asclepiadoideae) or 4 (Secamonoideae) per pollinarium. Ovaries 2, free
, superior; ovules numerous
. Styles connate; stigma head fleshy. Fruit of 1 or 2 follicles. Seeds numerous, strongly compressed
, with a coma (a prominent
basal tuft of silky
) . Chromosome number x = (8-) 11 (or 12) .
Some 250 genera and over 2000 species: widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Africa and southern South America, with a moderate representation in northern and southeastern Asia; 44 genera (four endemic) and 270 species (153 endemic) in China.
Some authorities include this family in the Apocynaceae. Genera 1-6 are sometimes placed in a separate family, the Periplocaceae, here regarded as a subfamily , Periplocoideae. Genera 7-10 belong to the Secamonoideae and the remaining genera to the Asclepiadoideae. Many Chinese taxa are known only from dried material , sometimes not well preserved, and it is likely that the study of living or spirit-preserved material could lead to a reassessment of the taxonomy of some of these endemic taxa.
All plant parts, especially the seeds and latex, are often poisonous. They contain various alkaloids and glycosides, many of which are used in medicine and as insecticides . A few succulent species (e.g. , Stapelia gigantia N. E. Brown, Orbea pulchella (Masson) L. C. Leach, and O. variegata (Linnaeus) Haworth are grown by specialist collectors in China.
herbs or undershrubs, young branches often twining
. Leaves opposite, petiolate
, lamina suborbicular
to lanceolate. Flowers in axillary
few-flowered cyrnes. Corolla lobes
twisted in bud. Corona
, 5-lobed or partite, lobes without internal processes, free
or fused at the base
only. Pollinia solitary in each loculus, pendulous, without a pellucid
. Follicles smooth
A genus with about 10-20 species, distributed in Europe and Asia; represented in Pakistan by 6 species.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Cronquist, Takhtajan & W. Zimmermann, 1966
- Flowering Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Lamiidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Spermatophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Magnoliophyta () - Cronquist, Takhtajan & W. Zimmermann, 1966 - Flowering Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Vincetoxicum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 337, p. 370.
- Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Lawrence, Kan.: Allen Press [etc.] url p. 87.
- Lindley, J. Paxton's flower garden /by Professor Lindley and Sir Joseph Paxton. 3 1853 London: Bradbury and Evans, -1853. url p. 178.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 492.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 95.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 26 1889-90 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 107.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 161.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 938.
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Asclepiadaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 249-575.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Cerambycidae database 2006.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed January 20, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 3 providers.
- Orthoptera Species File Online, 2.5, 2006.
- The Global Lepidoptera Names Index2, 12.2, 2005.
- Universal Chalcidoidea Database 2005.
- World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesFeb 2, 2006.
- Bingtao Li, Michael G. Gilbert & W. Douglas Stevens "Asclepiadaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 189. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- S.I. Ali "Vincetoxicum". in Flora of Pakistan Page 31. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]