Common Names in English:
, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
Herbs with stolons and watery juice. Leaves opposite, entire, short petiolate
present. Flowers solitary or rarely in 2-flowered cymes, axillary
. Calyx small, without glands. Corolla violet, funnelform
or with scales
, shorter than tube, overlapping to left. Stamens inserted
just below middle
of corolla tube. Disc glands 2, ligulate
, alternating with ovaries. Ovules 6-many. Style filiform
; pistil head
ringlike, apex densely hairy. Follicles 2, erect
or spreading, cylindric, striate
. Seeds glabrous
About five species: W Asia, Europe; two species cultivated in China.
Habit: Vine , Subshrub
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,090 meters (0 to 3,576 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Vinca
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 32 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
V. herbacea (Herbaceous Periwinkle) · V. major (Bigleaf Periwinkle) · V. major 'Maculata' (Greater Perwinkle) · V. major 'Variegata' (Variegata Variegated Greater Periwinkle) · V. minor (Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Green Carpet' (Green Carpet Vinca) · V. minor 'Alba' (Alba Flower-Of-Death Vinca Minor) · V. minor 'Alba Variegata' (Alba Variegata Flower-Of-Death Vinca Minor) · V. minor 'Argenteo-Variegata' (Argenteo-Variegata Flower-Of-Death Vinca Minor) · V. minor 'Atropurpurea' (Atropurpurea Flower-Of-Death Vinca Minor) · V. minor 'Azurea Flore Pleno' (Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Bowles' (Bowles` Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Bowles Golden' (Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Bowles's Purple' (Periwinkle 'bowles's Purple') · V. minor 'Hawaii' (Periwinkle 'hawaii') · V. minor 'Illumination' (Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Jekyll' (Jekyll`s White Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'La Grave' (Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Multiplex' (Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Ralph Shugert' (Common Periwinkle) · V. minor 'Sterling Silver' (Creeping Myrtle) · V. minor 'Variegata' (Variegated Common Periwinkle) · V.'Cooler Coconut' (Coconut Vinca) · V. 'Cooler Grape' (Grape Vinca) · V. 'Cooler Peppermint' (Peppermint Vinca) · V.'Cooler Raspberry Red' (Raspberry Red Vinca) · V. 'Cooler Red' (Red Vinca) · V. 'Nirvana Cascade' (Nirvana Cascade Vinca) · V. 'Nirvana Red' (Nirvana Red Vinca) · V. 'Nirvana White' (Nirvana White Vinca) · V.'Pacifica Dark Red' (Dark Red Vinca) · V.'Victory Cranberry' (Cranberry Vinca)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 06, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2653374
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-30236
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13744326
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:82691-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30236
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: VIHE3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 68270
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Vinca". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 157. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 380.190 meters (1,247.343 feet), Standard Deviation = 735.640 based on 31 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]