Common Names in English:
Black Mullein, Dark Mullein
Herbs, sometimes shrubs
, rarely trees
; mostly autotrophic, less often hemiparasitic or parasitic. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, opposite, whorled
, or basally opposite and apically alternate, simple
or sometimes pinnately dissected
. Inflorescences racemes
, spikes, or thyrsoid
panicles, determinate or indeterminate, or flowers solitary. Flowers perfect
, usually zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic
. Calyx often persistent
, (2-) 4- or 5-lobed or -parted, variously connate
. Corolla sympetalous
; limb (3 or) 4- or 5-lobed, often 2-lipped. Stamens mostly 4, didynamous
, sometimes 1 or 2 staminodes present, less often 2 or 5 stamens; anther
locules 1 or 2, equal or subequal
often present at base
of ovary, ringlike, cupular, or reduced to a gland
. Ovary superior, 2-loculed, rarely apically 1-loculed; ovules numerous
, rarely 2 per locule, on axile
. Style simple; stigma capitate, 2-lobed, or 2-lamellate. Fruit a capsule, septicidal
, loculicidal, or septifragal, sometimes opening by pores
or irregularly dehiscent
, rarely a berry. Seeds minute or rarely conspicuous
, sometimes winged
; testa often reticulate
or ventral; endosperm fleshy
or absent; embryo straight or curved
About 220 genera and 4500 species: cosmopolitan ; 61 genera (seven endemic) and 681 species (415 endemic) throughout China but with a greater concentration in SW China.
, biennial, or perennial
. Leaves usually simple
, alternate, basally rosulate. Inflorescences terminal
, racemose, or paniculate
. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla usually yellow, rarely purple or white; tube
short; limb rotate; lobes
. Stamens 4 or 5; filaments
, anterior anthers linear-oblong or reniform
, posterior anthers reniform or transverse
. Ovary 2-loculed. Capsule septicidal
. Seeds numerous
, conically cylindric
About 300 species: Asia, Europe; six species in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: yellow
Size: 24-36" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,428 meters (0 to 4,685 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Lamiales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lamianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Verbascum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 74 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
V. acaule (Dwarf Mullein) · V. arcturus (Cretan Bears Tail) · V. atroviolaceum (Purple Mullein) · V. blattaria (Moth Mullein) · V. blattaria f. albiflorum (Moth Mullein) · V. blattaria yellow-flowered (Moth Mullein) · V. blattaria 'Pink' (Moth Mullein) · V. bombyciferum (Silver Mullein) · V. bombyciferum 'Arctic Summer' (Silver Mullein) · V. chaixii (Nettle-Leaved Mullein) · V. chaixii 'Album' (Nettle-Leaved Mullein) · V. chaixii 'Sixteen Candles' (Nettle-Leaved Mullein) · V. cretica (Cretan Mullein) · V. densiflorum (Dense Mullein) · V. dumulosum (Dwarf Mullein) · V. epixanthemum (Verbascum) · V. kerneri (Kerner's Mullein) · V. longifolium (Mullein) · V. lychnitis (White Mullein) · V. nevadense (Mullein) · V. nigrum (Black Mullein) · V. nigrum nigrum (Black Mullein) · V. nigrum 'Album' (Black Mullein) · V. olympicum (Greek Mullein) · V. phlomoides (Orange Mullein) · V. phoeniceum (Purple Mullein) · V. phoeniceum 'Flush of White' (Purple Mullein) · V. phoeniceum 'Rosetta' (Purple Mullein) · V. phoeniceum 'Violetta' (Purple Mullein) · V. phoenicium 'Violetta' (Purple Mullein) · V. pterocaulon (Mullein) · V. pulverulentum (Violetstamen Mullein) · V. pyramidatum (Mullein) · V. roripifolium (Mullein) · V. sinuatum (Wavyleaf Mullein) · V. speciosum (Hungarian Mullein) · V. spinosum (Spiny Mullein) · V. spurium (Mullein) · V. thapsus (Aarons Rod) · V. thapsus thapsus (Flannel Mullein) · V. undulatum (Wavy-Leaf Mullein) · V. virgatum (Wand Mullein) · V. wiedemannianum (Indigo Mullein) · V. x kerneri (Kerner's Mullein) · V. x phoeniceum 'Jackie' (Mullein) · V. x pterocaulon (Mullein) · V. 'Banana Custard' (Banana Custard Mullein) · V. 'Bold Queen' (Mullein) · V. 'Caribbean Crush' (Caribbean Crush Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Cherry Helen' (Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Cotswold Beauty' (Mullien) · V. 'Cotswold Cream' (Mullien) · V. 'Cotswold King' (Mullien) · V. 'Cotswold Queen' (Mullien) · V. 'Dark Eyes' (Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Gainsborough' (Mullien) · V. 'Helen Johnson' (Helen Johnson Mullein) · V. 'Jackie' (Jackie Mullein) · V. 'Jackie in Pink' (Jackie in Pink Mullein) · V. 'Jester' (Mullein 'jester') · V. 'Lavender Lass' (Mullein) · V. 'Letitia' (Letitia Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Pink Domino' (Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Pink Petticoats' (Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Plum Smokey' (Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Raspberry Ripple' (Mullein) · V. 'Royalty' (Mullein) · V. 'Saffron Towers' (Mullein) · V. 'Sierra Sunset' (Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Snow Maiden' (Mullien) · V. 'Southern Charm' (Mullein) · V. 'Spica' (Mullein) · V. 'Sugar Plum' (Ornamental Mullein) · V. 'Summer Sorbet' (Ornamental Mullein)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, GEO Biodiversity Day
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO, Herbarium GJO
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669716
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-505651
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:770014-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 41149
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505651
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: VENI
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 62135
- Deyuan Hong, Hanbi Yang, Cun-li Jin, Manfred A. Fischer, Noel H. Holmgren & Robert R. Mill "Scrophulariaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 18 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Verbascum". in Flora of China Vol. 18 Page 4. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 220.080 meters (722.047 feet), Standard Deviation = 291.980 based on 4,866 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]