Common Names in English:
Largeflower Valerian, Large-Flower Valeriana, Long-Tube Valeriana
herbs with aromatic
underground parts. Leaves entire or divided
. Flowers white or pink in corymbose
cymes, panicles or heads
; upper bracts opposite. Calyx unrolled in fruit into a plumose
pappus. Corolla 5-lobed, often gibbous
at the base
. Stamens 3. Stigma 2-3-fid or simple
. Ovary 3-locular, with only 1 fertile
locule. Achene crowned by the persistent
pappose calyx, dorsally
3-ribbed, ventrally 1-ribbed, glabrous
A genus of over 200 species. Widely distributed in the temperate regions of Asia, Africa, Europe and N. & S. America. Represented here by 9 or 10 species.
It is often difficult to identify the valerians without the basal leaves (which may shed early), underground and fruiting parts.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Dipsacanae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Michx. Publication : Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 1: 18 1803 [19 Mar 1803]
Members of the genus Valeriana
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 34 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
V. acutiloba (Cordilleran Valerian) · V. acutiloba var. acutiloba (Sharpleaf Valerian) · V. acutiloba var. pubicarpa (Hairyfruit Valeriana) · V. arizonica (Arizona Tobaccoroot) · V. californica (California Valerian) · V. capitata (Captiate Valerian) · V. capitata acutiloba (Cordilleran Valerian) · V. columbiana (Wenatchee Valerian) · V. dioica (Marsh Valerian) · V. dioica simplicifolia (Marsh Valerian) · V. dioica var. sylvatica (Woods Valeriana) · V. edulis (Edible Valerian) · V. edulis ciliata var. ciliata (Taproot Valerian) · V. edulis var. ciliata (Tobacco Root) · V. edulis var. edulis (Tobacco Root) · V. jatamansi (Indian Valerian) · V. occidentalis (Small-Flower Valerian) · V. officinalis (All Heal) · V. officinalis excelsa (Garden Heliotrope) · V. officinalis 'Arterner Zuchtung' (All Heal) · V. officinalis 'Sweet Kathi' (Sweet Kathi Garden Heliotrope) · V. pauciflora (Largeflower Valerian) · V. sambucifolia (Valerian) · V. scandens (Florida Valerian) · V. scandens var. candolleana (Florida Valerian) · V. scandens var. scandens (Florida Valerian) · V. scouleri (Scouler's Valerian) · V. sisymbriifolia (Valerian) · V. sitchensis (Sitka Valerian) · V. sitchensis sitchensis (Pacific Valerian) · V. sitchensis uliginosa (Marsh Valerian) · V. sorbifolia (Pineland Valerian) · V. texana (Guadalupe Valerian) · V. uliginosa (Marsh Valerian)
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- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopœial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url .
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- Lessons in botany and vegetable physiology, illus. by. .. Isaac Sprague. To which is added a copious glossary, or dictionary of botanical terms. New York, Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1872 [c1868] url p. 177.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 307.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 878.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 1277.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 16 1921 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 260, p. 307.
- Practical botany, structural and systematic, the latter portion being an analytical key to the wild flowering plants, trees, shrubs, ordinary herbs, sedges and grasses of the northern and middle United States east of the Mississippi, by August Koehler. ... New York, H. Holt and Company, 1876. url p. 391.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- US National Plant Germplasm System: United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657230
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-35364
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:860039-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 450031
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35364
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 860039-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: VAPA2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 67504