Common Names in English:
herbs with aromatic
underground parts. Leaves entire or divided
. Flowers white or pink in corymbose
cymes, panicles or heads
; upper bracts opposite. Calyx unrolled in fruit into a plumose
pappus. Corolla 5-lobed, often gibbous
at the base
. Stamens 3. Stigma 2-3-fid or simple
. Ovary 3-locular, with only 1 fertile
locule. Achene crowned by the persistent
pappose calyx, dorsally
3-ribbed, ventrally 1-ribbed, glabrous
A genus of over 200 species. Widely distributed in the temperate regions of Asia, Africa, Europe and N. & S. America. Represented here by 9 or 10 species.
It is often difficult to identify the valerians without the basal leaves (which may shed early), underground and fruiting parts.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: near white, pale pink, white
Size: 4-6' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,422 meters (0 to 4,665 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Dipsacanae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Eichw. Publication : Skizze 152
Members of the genus Valeriana
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 34 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
V. acutiloba (Cordilleran Valerian) · V. acutiloba var. acutiloba (Sharpleaf Valerian) · V. acutiloba var. pubicarpa (Hairyfruit Valeriana) · V. arizonica (Arizona Tobaccoroot) · V. californica (California Valerian) · V. capitata (Captiate Valerian) · V. capitata acutiloba (Cordilleran Valerian) · V. columbiana (Wenatchee Valerian) · V. dioica (Marsh Valerian) · V. dioica simplicifolia (Marsh Valerian) · V. dioica var. sylvatica (Woods Valeriana) · V. edulis (Edible Valerian) · V. edulis ciliata var. ciliata (Taproot Valerian) · V. edulis var. ciliata (Tobacco Root) · V. edulis var. edulis (Tobacco Root) · V. jatamansi (Indian Valerian) · V. occidentalis (Small-Flower Valerian) · V. officinalis (All Heal) · V. officinalis excelsa (Garden Heliotrope) · V. officinalis 'Arterner Zuchtung' (All Heal) · V. officinalis 'Sweet Kathi' (Sweet Kathi Garden Heliotrope) · V. pauciflora (Largeflower Valerian) · V. sambucifolia (Valerian) · V. scandens (Florida Valerian) · V. scandens var. candolleana (Florida Valerian) · V. scandens var. scandens (Florida Valerian) · V. scouleri (Scouler's Valerian) · V. sisymbriifolia (Valerian) · V. sitchensis (Sitka Valerian) · V. sitchensis sitchensis (Pacific Valerian) · V. sitchensis uliginosa (Marsh Valerian) · V. sorbifolia (Pineland Valerian) · V. texana (Guadalupe Valerian) · V. uliginosa (Marsh Valerian)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 07, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10846367
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:860158-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 860157-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 899989
- "Valeriana". in Flora of Pakistan Page 2.. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 464.150 meters (1,522.802 feet), Standard Deviation = 396.350 based on 3,756 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]