, from short or elongate
rhizomes bearing several fibrous
or thickened roots
. Stems simple
or 1-branched, excluding flower-bearing branches, strongly angled
, with sheathing
bracts proximally. Leaves alternate, sessile or perfoliate; blade
oblong-linear to oblong-ovate, membranaceous
to leathery. Inflorescences 1 per branch
but appearing axillary
; peduncles pendent. Flowers: perianth narrowly campanulate
; tepals promptly deciduous, imbricate, distinct
to narrowly oblong
, apex obtuse
or acute, nectariferous
; stamens distinct to weakly connate
at perianth base; filaments
, glabrous; anthers
present; ovary superior, 3-locular, sessile or stipitate
, rounded to sharply triangular; style 1, 3-lobed; stigmas 3, lobed
, outwardly arching
at maturity. Fruits capsular
, greenish to yellowish brown, sessile or stipitate, leathery or submembranaceous, tardily dehiscent
, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 1-3 per locule, brownish red, globose
; arils various. x
= 6, 7.
Species 5: e North America.
Uvularia, a genus of attractive, spring-blooming plants , has been divided into sect. Oakesiella (Small) Wilbur with sessile leaves and sect. Uvularia with perfoliate leaves. Differences in other morphological (R. L. Wilbur 1963) and cytological (F. H. Utech 1978d) characters support recognition of these infrageneric groups.
D. K . Wijesinghe and D. F. Whigham (1997, 2001) compared the different, below-ground, vegetative morphologies of three Uvularia species and their relationship to their differing clonal populations and dynamics.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Colchicaceae () - A.P. de Candolle, 1805
- Order: Liliales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Uvularia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
U. caroliniana (Mountain Bellwort) · U. floridana (Florida Bellwort) · U. grandiflora (Large Bellwort) · U. perfoliata (Dwarf Merrybells) · U. puberula (Mountain Bellwort) · U. rosea (Rose Mandarin) · U. sessilifolia (Bellworts)
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- Annals of natural history. London, R. and J.E. Taylor, url p. 340, p. 340.
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 436.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 19 1915 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 140, p. 201, p. 253, p. 611.
- Edinburgh encyclopaedia, conducted by David Brewster. .. with the assistance of gentlemen eminent in science and literature. Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1830. url p. 494.
- Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North America. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years by Frederick Pursh. .. London: Printed for James Black and son, 1816. url p. 232.
- Flora of New Mexico / by E.O. Wooton and Paul C. Standley. Washington: G.P.O., 1915. url p. 140.
- Flora of New Mexico. By E.O. Wooton and Paul C. Standley. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off.1915 url p. 140.
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- Floral illustrations of the seasons, consisting of the most beautiful, hardy and rare herbaceous plants cultivated in the flower garden, from drawings, by Mrs. Edward Roscoe. Engraved by R. Havell. 1851 London, Robert Havell, 1831 [i.e. 1829] url explanation of plate 12.
- Florula bostoniensis. A collection of plants of Boston and its vicinity, with their generic and specific characters, principal synonyms, descriptions, places of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. By Jacob Bigelow. .. Boston, Cummings, Hilliard, & co., 1824. url p. 131.
- Gray's Lessons in botany and vegetable physiology: illustrated by over 360 wood engravings from original drawings by Isaac Sprague: to which is added a copious glossary, or dictionary of botanical terms / by Asa Gray. New York: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 1877, c1868. url p. 529.
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- Manual of botany, for North America: containing generic and specific descriptions of the indigenous plants and common cultivated exotics, growing north of the Gulf of Mexico / by Amos Eaton. Albany: Printed by Websters and Skinners, 1829. url p. 412.
- Manual of the botany of the northern United States: including the district east of the Mississippi and north of North Carolina and Tennessee, arranged according to the natural system / by Asa Gray. New York: Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1868, c1867. url p. 529.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 1503.
- Meddelelser om Grønland. København, C. A. Reitzels Forlag, 1879-1979. url p. 121.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 115.
- Natural history of New York. Albany: D. Appleton: 1842-1894. url p. 322, p. 322.
- North American botany; comprising the native and common cultivated plants, north of Mexico. Genera arranged according to the artificial and natural methods. By Amos Eaton. In the present edition the author is associated with John Wright. Troy, N. Y., E. Gates, 1840. url p. 445.
- Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Boston: Metcalf and Co., 1846-1958 url p. 269.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. London, Published for the Linnean Society of London by Academic Press [etc.], 1848-1968. url p. 401, p. 47.
- Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledones / by O. Gelert and C.H. Ostenfeld. Copenhagen: Nordiske forlag, 1902. url p. 35.
- Report on the geology, mineralogy, botany, and zoology of Massachusetts. Made and published by order of the government of that state: in four parts: pt. I. Economical geology. pt. II. Topographical geology. pt. III. Scientific geology. pt. IV. Catalogues of animals and pl Amherst: J.S. and C. Adams, 1835. url p. 632.
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- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 36 1903-05 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 110, p. 591.
- The Universal herbal; or, Botanical, medical, and agricultural dictionary; containing an account of all the known plants in the world, arranged according to the Linnean system. Specifying the uses to which they are or may be applied, whether as food, as medicine, or in the a London, Caxton Press url p. 869.
- The natural history of Pliny. London, H. G. Bohn, 1855-57. url p. 251.
- The natural history of Pliny. Tr., with copious notes and illustrations, by the late John Bostock and H. T. Riley. London, H. G. Bohn, 1855-57. url p. 251.
- Anderson, E. and T. W. Whitaker. 1934. Speciation in Uvularia. J. Arnold Arbor. 15: 28-42. Dietz, R. A. 1952. Variation in the perfoliate uvularias. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 39: 219-247.
- Hayashi, K. et al. 1998. Molecular systematics of the genus Uvularia and selected Liliales based upon matK and rbcL gene sequence data. Pl. Spec. Biol. 13: 129-146.
- Kawano, S. and H. H. Iltis. 1964. Cytotaxonomic and geographic notes on Uvularia (Liliaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 13-23.
- Soper, J. H. 1952. Phytogeographic studies in Ontario I. The genus Uvularia in southern Ontario. Rhodora 54: 58-67.
- Wijesinghe, D. K. and D. F. Whigham. 2001. Nutrient foraging in woodland herbs: A comparison of three species of Uvularia (Liliaceae) with contrasting belowground morphologies. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1071-1079.
- Wilbur, R. L. 1963. A revision of the North American genus Uvularia (Liliaceae). Rhodora 65: 158-188.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 13, 2012.