Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Arabic:
Common Names in Chinese:
Yi Zhu Qian Ma
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Brænde Nælde, Brændenælde, Hede-Nælde, Stor Nælde, Tvebo Nælde
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
California Nettle, Bull Nettle, Common Nettle, Edible Nettle, European Nettle, Great Nettle, Greater Nettle, Nettle, Slender Nettle, Stinging Nettle, Tall Nettle, True Nettle
Common Names in Finnish:
Isonokkonen, Nokkonen, Viholainen
Common Names in French:
Epinard Des Grecs, Epinard Des Turques, Grande Ortie, Ortie, Ortie élevée, Ortie Brûlante, Ortie Dioïque, Ortie Dioïque D´europe (Canada), Ortie Grièche, Ortie Piquante
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Greek:
Knidi, Tsouknitha (Tsouknida)
Common Names in Italian:
Grande Ortica, Ortica, Ortica Comune, Ortica Grande, Ortica Maschia, Ortica Vivace, Orticone
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Pokrzywa Pospolita, Pokrzywa Zwyczajna
Common Names in Portuguese:
Ortiga, Urtigão, Urtigão (Brazil), Urtiga, Urtiga-Maior, Urtiga-Maior (Brazil), Urtiga-Mansa, Urtiga-Mansa (Brazil), Urtiga-Vermelha, Urtiga-Vermelha (Brazil)
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Russian:
Krapiva Dvudomnaja, крапива двудомная
Common Names in Spanish:
Chichicaste, Ortiga, Ortiga Grande, Ortiga Mayor
Common Names in Swedish:
, or shrubs
, rarely trees
, very rarely climbing
, stems often fibrous
, sometimes succulent. sometimes armed
; epidermal cells
of leaves, sometimes stems, perianths mostly with prominent
; Leaves alternate or opposite, stipules present, rarely absent; leaf blade
. Inflorescences cymose
, racemose, spicate
, or cluster-capitate, usually formed from glomerules
, sometimes crowded on common enlarged cuplike or discoid
receptacle, rarely reduced into a single flower. Flowers unisexual
monoecious or dioecious), rarely bisexual
in partial flowers; actinomorphic
, very small, (1-) 4- or 5-merous, rarely perianth absent in female flowers. Calyx absent. Perianth lobes imbricate or valvate
. Male flowers: stamens as many as and opposite to perianth lobes, filaments
in bud; anthers
2-locular, opening lengthwise, rudimentary
ovary often present. Female flowers: perianth lobes free
, usually enlarged in fruit and persistent
, occasionally absent; staminodes scarious
, opposite to the perianth lobes, or absent. Ovary rudimentary in male flowers, sessile or shortly stipitate
, free or adnate
to the perianth; 1-locular, ovule solitary, erect
from the base
; style simple, or absent; stigma diverse
, capitate, penicillate-capitate (brushlike), subulate
, or peltate. Fruit usually a dry achene, sometimes a fleshy
drupe, often enclosed by the persistent perianth. Seed solitary, endosperm usually present; embryo straight; cotyledons ovate
About 47 genera and 1300 species: most numerous in wet tropical regions , extending into temperate regions ; 25 genera and 341 species (163 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
Plants in this family have numerous uses. The stem fiber of some genera and species is of high quality and used to make cloth, fishing nets , and ropes and for some industrial materials . In central and southern China,
Boehmeria nivea is widely cultivated for ramie fiber and Girardinia diversifolia subsp. triloba is widely cultivated for red huo ma fiber. Boiled young shoots of Girardinia, Laportea, and Urtica are eaten as vegetables. Some species are used in local Chinese medicine. Pellionia repens, Pilea cadierei, P. microphylla, and P. peperomioides, among other species, are widely cultivated as ornamentals in China and elsewhere. Some genera, such as Elatostema, Pellionia, and Pilea, occur frequently in shady, moist habitats of subtropical forests and become dominant elements of the forest floor vegetation. Plants of the first five genera belong to tribe Urticeae, which is usually characterized by the distinctive stinging hairs.
, with stinging
and nonstinging hairs
on same plant. Stems simple
or branched, erect
, or sprawling
. Leaves opposite; stipules present. Leaf blades
, lanceolate, ovate
, or orbiculate, margins
to serrate; cystoliths
or ± elongate
. Inflorescences axillary
, of cymes arranged in racemes
or panicles. Flowers unisexual
flowers in loose
to tight clusters
in separate inflorescences or intermixed in same inflorescence on same or different plants
; bracts narrowly triangular to lanceolate, lacking hooked
hairs. Staminate flowers
: tepals 4, distinct
, equal; stamens 4; pistillode
cuplike. Pistillate flowers: tepals 4, distinct, inner 2 equal to achene, outer 2 smaller, without hooked hairs; staminodes absent; style absent; stigma tufted
or deciduous. Achenes sessile, laterally compressed
or deltoid, loosely enclosed by inner tepals. x
= 12, 13.
Species 45: nearly worldwide.
Species Urtica dioica
Herbs, perennial , rhizomatous , 5-30 dm. Stems simple or branched, erect or sprawling . Leaf blades elliptic , lanceolate, or narrowly to broadly ovate , 6-20 × 2-13 cm, base rounded to cordate, margins coarsely serrate, sometimes doubly serrate, apex acute or acuminate; cystoliths rounded. Inflorescences paniculate , pedunculate , elongate . Flowers unisexual , staminate and pistillate on same or different plants , staminate ascending, the pistillate lax or recurved. Pistillate flowers: outer tepals linear to narrowly spatulate or lanceolate, 0.8-1.2 mm, inner tepals ovate to broadly ovate, 1.4-1.8 × 1.1-1.3 mm. Achenes ovoid to broadly ovoid, 1-1.3(-1.4) × 0.7-0.9 mm. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: green
Size: 4-6' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Urtica
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 18 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
U. angustifolia (Narrow-Leaved Nettles) · U. ballotifolia (Nettle) · U. cannabina (Hemp Nettle) · U. chamaedryoides (Heartleaf Nettle) · U. dioica (California Nettle) · U. dioica dioica (California Nettle) · U. dioica holoserica (California Nettle) · U. dioica holosericea (California Nettle) · U. dioica subsp. gracilis (California Nettle) · U. dioica subsp. holosericea (Hoary Stinging Nettle) · U. ferox (Nettle Tree) · U. galeopsifolia (Narrow-Leaved Nettle) · U. gracilenta (Mountain Nettle) · U. hyperborea (Himalayan Nettle) · U. incisa (Scrub Nettle) · U. moluccana (Hawai'i Lopleaf) · U. pilulifera (Roman Nettle) · U. urens (Burning Nettle)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
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- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19152
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4395043
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:262032-2
- GRIN Nomen Number: 40944
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19152
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 857539-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: URDIP2 URG
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 67329
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- Mean = 180.840 meters (593.307 feet), Standard Deviation = 292.730 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]