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Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Aramina, Bur-Mallow, Caesar Weed, Caesar-Weed, Caesarweed, Chosuched E Kui, Congo Jute Urena Lobata, Congo-Jute, Dadangsi Apaka, Hibiscus Burr, Jute Africain
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hindi:
Bachita, Lapetua, Pthia, Unga, उनंगा, पिथया, बिचता, लपेटुवा
Common Names in India:
Common Names in Malayalam:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Aguaxima, Carrapicho-De-Lavadeira, Carrapicho-Redondo, Embira, Guaxima, Guaxima-Rósea, Malvaísco, Malva-De-Embira, Malva-Rósea, Uaicima
Common Names in Spanish:
Aramina, Cadillo, Malva Blanca
, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
. Leaves alternate; leaf blade
, palmately lobed
, with 1 or more prominent
nectaries on abaxial
surface. Flowers solitary or nearly fascicled, rarely racemelike, axillary
or rarely aggregated on twig
, 5-lobed. Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, stellate puberulent abaxially. Staminal
or slightly incised; anthers
, on outside of staminal column only, nearly sessile. Ovary 5-loculed; ovule 1 per locule; style branches 10, reflexed
; stigma discoid
, apically ciliate
. Fruit a schizocarp, subglobose; mericarps 5, ovoid
, usually with spines, these each with a cluster
of short barbs
at tips. Seed 1, obovoid-trigonous or reniform
About six species: in tropical and subtropical regions; three species (one endemic) in China.
Some authorities have restricted Urena to the taxa with barb-tipped setae, sometimes treating these as a single, very variable, pantropical species, and placed other species, including U. repanda, in Pavonia. Some species of Triumfetta (Tiliaceae s.l.) are superficially rather similar and have been confused with this genus.
Species Urena lobata
Subshrublike herbs, erect
, to 1 m
2 mm, caducous
1-4 cm, gray-white
stellate; leaf blades
part of stem nearly orbicular
4-5 × 5-6 cm, base
or nearly cordate, margin
apex 3-lobed, blades on middle
part of stem ovate, 5-7 × 3-6.5
cm, those on distal part of stem oblong to lanceolate, 4-7 ×
1.5-3 cm, abaxially gray stellate puberulent, adaxially puberulent
Flowers solitary or slightly aggregated, axillary
. Pedicel ca. 3
for ca. 1/3 length
, ca. 6 mm,
puberulent. Calyx cup-shaped, lobes 5, slightly shorter than bracteoles,
stellate puberulent, caducous. Corolla reddish, ca. 15 mm in diam.;
petals 5, obovate
, ca. 1.5 cm, abaxially stellate puberulent. Staminal
column ca. 15 mm, glabrous
. Style branches 10, hirsute
. Fruit flattened
, ca. 1 cm in diam.; mericarps stellate puberulent and spiny
This is a polymorphic species for which many infraspecific taxa have been described from throughout its range . [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May, June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: pink
Size: 36-48" tall.
Grasslands, scrub , roadsides; 500-2200 m .
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Malvales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Urena lobata sinuata (L.) Waalkes • Urena lobata var. sinuata (L.) Miq. Ex Kuntze
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Urena
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647735
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21759
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490765
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:564786-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 40900
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21759
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: URTR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 67284
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