Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Chinese Elm, Dwarf Elm, Littleleaf Elm, Siberian Elm
Common Names in German:
or deciduous. Winter buds
, rarely naked; axillary buds developed; terminal
bud usually dying back early. Stipules usually membranous, caducous
. Leaves simple
, alternate or rarely opposite, usually distichous, petiolate
; leaf blade
pinnately veined, basally 3(or 5) -veined, margin
entire or serrate. Inflorescences axillary
. Flowers monochlamydeous
, or rarely unisexual
or polygamous. Perianth lobes
4-9, imbricate or rarely valvate
or caducous. Stamens usually equal in number to and opposite perianth lobes, opposite, basally adnate
to tepals; filaments
2-celled, longitudinally fissured
. Pistil 2-carpellate; ovary superior, 1(or 2) -loculed; ovule 1, suspended, anatropous
; integuments 2. Style very short; stigmas 2, linear
. Fruit samara, drupes, or winged
, apically usually with persistent stigmas. Endosperm scanty or absent; embryo erect
, or involute
; cotyledons flat, curved, or flexed. Seedling epigeous.
About 16 genera and ca. 230 species: widespread in temperate and tropical areas; eight genera (one endemic) and 46 species (23 endemic) in China.
Recent research strongly suggests that the subfamily Celtidoideae (Aphananthe, Celtis, Gironniera, Pteroceltis, and Trema) is not the closest relative of the subfamily Ulmoideae (Hemiptelea, Ulmus, and Zelkova) . It would probably be more accurate to exclude Celtidoideae from Ulmaceae, and move it to Cannabaceae, rather than treating it as a separate family , Celtidaceae. More data are needed before a stable, new classification of the Urticales can be produced . Until these data are available, it is more practical to retain the traditional circumscription of Ulmaceae.
Most species of this family yield fine timber, the cortex is a good substitute for hemp , the fruit are edible, and the seed oil is used medicinally and industrially. Many species of Ulmaceae are cultivated, and it is not always certain whether specimens are from wild or cultivated plants .
, less often shrubs
, to 35 m
; crowns variable. Bark
gray, brown, or olive to reddish, tan, or orange, deeply furrowed
, sometimes with plates
when young in Ulmus glabra ). Branches unarmed
, slender to stout, some with corky wings
. Leaves sometimes tardily deciduous; stipules falling early. Leaf blade
, sometimes cordate or rounded
to cuneate, margins
serrate to doubly serrate; venation
pinnate. Inflorescences fascicles, racemes
, or cymes, pedunculate
, subtended by 2 bracts. Flowers on branches of previous season
, appearing in spring
before leaves or in fall
or sessile; calyx 3-9-lobed; stamens 3-9; styles persistent
, deeply 2-lobed. Fruits samaras, usually flattened, membranously winged
Species 20-40: temperate regions , Northern Hemisphere, most in Eurasia .
A recent chloroplast DNA study (S. J. Wiegrefe et al. 1994) has led to the proposal of a new subgeneric and sectional classification of elms. The chloroplast DNA data are supported by morphologic, chemical, and nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence and indicate that the "rock" or hard elms ( Ulmus serotina, U. thomasii, U. crassifolia, and U. alata ) are more closely related than indicated by previous subgeneric treatments (C. K . Schneider 1916; I. A. Grudzinskaya 1980).
Most identification manuals include the introduced species , Ulmus glabra, U. procera, and U. parvifolia, and indicate that they are frequently naturalized . That may well be true. Available herbarium specimens are often inadequately labeled or do not reflect current occurrences. Ease of naturalization can be neither corroborated nor disproved. I include the three species in this treatment because they are known to persist and sometimes naturalize locally where the species have been planted. Extensive field work and collection of U. glabra and U. procera are needed to document their naturalized distributions. Ulmus parvifolia has been widely planted in groves and hedgerows in the Midwest and might well be expected to have become naturalized in more rural settings (S. Shetler, pers. comm. , 1995).
Street and field elms throughout much of North America have been killed by Dutch elm disease . The pathogen responsible for the disease is Ceratocystis ulmi, a fungus native to Europe that was first discovered in North America in Colorado in the 1930s. Since the rapid spread of the disease in the 1960s, much research has been devoted to development of disease-resistant elms (R. J. Stipes and R. J. Campana 1981). Various hybridization projects, including cloning of disease-resistant elms by the American Research Institute, have been started across the country. Ulmus parvifolia and U. pumila have varying degrees of disease resistance and are utilized as shade trees or in breeding programs (see U. pumila below). Apparently Dutch elm disease also affects U. parviflora, U. glabra, and U. procera; certainly the latter two species are more common as seedlings than as trees.
Species Ulmus pumila
, 15 to 30 m
; crowns open. Bark
gray to brown, deeply furrowed
with interlacing ridges
brittle. Branches not winged
. Buds dark brown, ovoid
brown, shiny, glabrous to slightly pubescent. Leaves: petiole
mm, glabrous. Leaf blade
to lanceolate, 2-6.5 ×
2-3.5 cm, base
generally not oblique
singly serrate, apex
acute; surfaces abaxially with some pubescence
in axils of veins,
adaxially glabrous; lateral
veins forking to 3 times per side. Inflorescences
tightly clustered fascicles, 6-15-flowered, 0.5 cm, flowers and fruits
not pendulous, sessile. Flowers: calyx shallowly lobed
glabrous; stamens 4-8; anthers
brownish red; stigmas green, lobes
exserted. Samaras yellow-cream, orbiculate, 10-14 mm diam., broadly
winged, glabrous, tip
1/3-1/2 its length
. Seeds thickened,
. 2 n = 28. [source]
Ulmus pumila probably occurs in Vermont and West Virginia, but it has not been documented for those states. [source]
Planted for quick-growing windbreaks, Ulmus pumila has weak wood, and its branches break easily in mature trees. It is easily distinguished from other North American elms by its singly serrate leaf margins. Ulmus pumila is similar to U. parvifolia Jacquin with its small, singly serrate leaves. Ulmus parvifolia, however, has smooth bark that sheds from tan to orange, and it flowers and sets fruit in the fall . [source]
ID Features: Branches always litter understory on tree. Black hairs on bud scales. Pendulous branches. Alternate leaf arrangement. Oblique leaf base. Rough leaf, with parallel veins. Serrate leaf margins. Deciduous.
Flowers: Not of any ornamental value. • Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: Green • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 64960 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: High • Fruit: Rounded samaras. Deeply notched at tip . Greenish in color. 0.5" in diameter. Not noticeable. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . 0.75" to 3" long. 0.33" to 1" wide. Oblique leaf base. Serrate leaf margins. Young leaves have pubescent underside. Short, pubescent petioles. Dark green leaf color. No terminal bud. Lateral buds are globose . Black hairs on bud scales. • Fall foliage: Turns yellowish-brown. Not ornamentally important. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid. • Mature Height (feet): 70.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 40 • Size: 50' to 70' tall and about the same in width . • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
- Elm leaf beetle. Powdery mildew
. Aphids. Leaf spot
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,212 meters (0 to 13,819 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Spring • Fruit/Seed Period End: Spring • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Easily transplanted. Very adaptable to all growing conditions.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 5.5 • Maximum pH: 8.0 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High • Minimum Precipitation: 16 • Maximum Precipitation: 50 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 90 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
U. manshurica Nakai • U. turkestanica Requien • Ulmus campestris Linnaeus Var. pumila Maximowicz
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Ulmus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 75 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
U. alata (Winged Elm) · U. alata 'Lace Parasol' (Winged Elm) · U. americana (American Elm) · U. americana 'American Liberty' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Ascendens' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Delaware #2' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Jefferson' (American Elm) · U. americana 'New Harmony' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Pioneer' (Pioneer American Elm) · U. americana 'Princeton' (American Elm) · U. americana 'St Croix' (American Elm 'st. Croix') · U. americana 'Valley Forge' (Valley Forge American Elm) · U. carpinifolia 'Homestead' (Homestead Smoothleaf Elm) · U. crassifolia (Cedar Elm) · U. davidiana (Japanese Elm) · U. glabra (Scots Elm) · U. glabra 'Camperdownii' (Camperdown Elm) · U. laevis (European White Elm) · U. parviflora (Elm) · U. parviflora 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. parvifolia (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Allee' (Allee Lacebark Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Athena' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'A. Ross Central Park' (Central Park Splendor Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Bosque' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Brea' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Burgundy' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Catlin' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Central Park Splendor' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Chessins' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Cork Bark' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Corticosa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Drake' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Dynasty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'D.b. Cole' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ed Wood' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Elsmo' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer II' (Allee® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer I' (Athena® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Frosty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Geisha' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Glory' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hallelujah' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hokkaido' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Jade Empress' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'King's Choice' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Matthew' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Milliken' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ohio' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Pathfinder' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Red Fall' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Seiju' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Sempervirens' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'State Fair' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'The Thinker' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'True Green' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Yatsubusa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Zettler' (Chinese Elm) · U. procera (English Elm) · U. pumila (Chinese Elm) · U. pumila 'Beijing Gold' (Siberian Elm) · U. rubra (Red Elm) · U. serotina (September Elm) · U. thomasii (Cork Elm) · U. Vada = 'Wanoux' (Elm [vada]) · U. x hollandica (Dutch Elm) · U. x hollandica 'Jacqueline Hillier' (Dutch Elm) · U. 'Accolade' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Arno' (Elm 'arno') · U. 'Fiorente' (Elm 'fiorente') · U. 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. 'Green King' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Patriot' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Pioneer' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Triumph' (Hybrid Elm)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Forest Research Institute, Department of Natural Forests, Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645785
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19057
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13851960
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:856923-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 40851
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19057
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ULPU
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 67048
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- Mean = 698.420 meters (2,291.404 feet), Standard Deviation = 679.440 based on 480 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]