Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Chinese Iep, Fynblaarolm
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Chinese Elm, Lacebark, Lacebark Elm
Common Names in German:
or deciduous. Winter buds
, rarely naked; axillary buds developed; terminal
bud usually dying back early. Stipules usually membranous, caducous
. Leaves simple
, alternate or rarely opposite, usually distichous, petiolate
; leaf blade
pinnately veined, basally 3(or 5) -veined, margin
entire or serrate. Inflorescences axillary
. Flowers monochlamydeous
, or rarely unisexual
or polygamous. Perianth lobes
4-9, imbricate or rarely valvate
or caducous. Stamens usually equal in number to and opposite perianth lobes, opposite, basally adnate
to tepals; filaments
2-celled, longitudinally fissured
. Pistil 2-carpellate; ovary superior, 1(or 2) -loculed; ovule 1, suspended, anatropous
; integuments 2. Style very short; stigmas 2, linear
. Fruit samara, drupes, or winged
, apically usually with persistent stigmas. Endosperm scanty or absent; embryo erect
, or involute
; cotyledons flat, curved, or flexed. Seedling epigeous.
About 16 genera and ca. 230 species: widespread in temperate and tropical areas; eight genera (one endemic) and 46 species (23 endemic) in China.
Recent research strongly suggests that the subfamily Celtidoideae (Aphananthe, Celtis, Gironniera, Pteroceltis, and Trema) is not the closest relative of the subfamily Ulmoideae (Hemiptelea, Ulmus, and Zelkova) . It would probably be more accurate to exclude Celtidoideae from Ulmaceae, and move it to Cannabaceae, rather than treating it as a separate family , Celtidaceae. More data are needed before a stable, new classification of the Urticales can be produced . Until these data are available, it is more practical to retain the traditional circumscription of Ulmaceae.
Most species of this family yield fine timber, the cortex is a good substitute for hemp , the fruit are edible, and the seed oil is used medicinally and industrially. Many species of Ulmaceae are cultivated, and it is not always certain whether specimens are from wild or cultivated plants .
, less often shrubs
, to 35 m
; crowns variable. Bark
gray, brown, or olive to reddish, tan, or orange, deeply furrowed
, sometimes with plates
when young in Ulmus glabra ). Branches unarmed
, slender to stout, some with corky wings
. Leaves sometimes tardily deciduous; stipules falling early. Leaf blade
, sometimes cordate or rounded
to cuneate, margins
serrate to doubly serrate; venation
pinnate. Inflorescences fascicles, racemes
, or cymes, pedunculate
, subtended by 2 bracts. Flowers on branches of previous season
, appearing in spring
before leaves or in fall
or sessile; calyx 3-9-lobed; stamens 3-9; styles persistent
, deeply 2-lobed. Fruits samaras, usually flattened, membranously winged
Species 20-40: temperate regions , Northern Hemisphere, most in Eurasia .
A recent chloroplast DNA study (S. J. Wiegrefe et al. 1994) has led to the proposal of a new subgeneric and sectional classification of elms. The chloroplast DNA data are supported by morphologic, chemical, and nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence and indicate that the "rock" or hard elms ( Ulmus serotina, U. thomasii, U. crassifolia, and U. alata ) are more closely related than indicated by previous subgeneric treatments (C. K . Schneider 1916; I. A. Grudzinskaya 1980).
Most identification manuals include the introduced species , Ulmus glabra, U. procera, and U. parvifolia, and indicate that they are frequently naturalized . That may well be true. Available herbarium specimens are often inadequately labeled or do not reflect current occurrences. Ease of naturalization can be neither corroborated nor disproved. I include the three species in this treatment because they are known to persist and sometimes naturalize locally where the species have been planted. Extensive field work and collection of U. glabra and U. procera are needed to document their naturalized distributions. Ulmus parvifolia has been widely planted in groves and hedgerows in the Midwest and might well be expected to have become naturalized in more rural settings (S. Shetler, pers. comm. , 1995).
Street and field elms throughout much of North America have been killed by Dutch elm disease . The pathogen responsible for the disease is Ceratocystis ulmi, a fungus native to Europe that was first discovered in North America in Colorado in the 1930s. Since the rapid spread of the disease in the 1960s, much research has been devoted to development of disease-resistant elms (R. J. Stipes and R. J. Campana 1981). Various hybridization projects, including cloning of disease-resistant elms by the American Research Institute, have been started across the country. Ulmus parvifolia and U. pumila have varying degrees of disease resistance and are utilized as shade trees or in breeding programs (see U. pumila below). Apparently Dutch elm disease also affects U. parviflora, U. glabra, and U. procera; certainly the latter two species are more common as seedlings than as trees.
Species Ulmus parvifolia
, 25 m
; crowns rounded
, open. Bark
olive green to gray, shedding
in irregular, tan to orange plates
. Branches long-pendulous, not
tan to dark brown, glabrous
. Buds acute
brown, pubescent. Leaves: petiole
2-6(-8) mm, glabrous
or sparsely pubescent with short hairs
. Leaf blade
(3.5-) 4-5(-6) × 1.5-2.5 cm, base
serrate (some doubly serrate), apex acute; surfaces abaxially pale
, adaxially dark green, lustrous
, glabrous; lateral
forking 5 or more times per side. Inflorescences fascicles, (2-)
3-4(-8) -flowered; pedicel 8-10 mm.
Flowers: calyx reddish brown,
(3-) 4-5, glabrous; stamens 3-4; anthers
stigma lobes white-pubescent, exserted, recurved and spreading
maturity. Samaras green to light brown, elliptic to ovate
cm, not winged, seeds nearly filling samara, notched
at apex, glabrous.
Seeds thickened, not inflated
. 2 n = 28. [source]
Ulmus parvifolia appears to naturalize more easily than U. procera or U. glabra. It has been reported but not documented from Idaho and West Virginia. [source]
Ulmus parvifolia is valued in cultivation for its pleasing form and ornamental bark. It is ruderal primarily in the southeastern United States. [source]
ID Features: Beautiful exfoliating bark. Samaras in fall. Slender stems with no terminal buds. Rough textured leaves. Pendulous branches. Alternate leaf arrangement. Oblique leaf base. Serrate leaf margins. Deciduous.
Flowers: Not of any ornamental value. • Bloom Period: July, August. • Flower Color: chartreuseyellow-green, inconspicuous, none
Seeds: Fruit: Rounded samaras. Notched at tip . Greenish red in color. Ripens in fall . Not noticeable.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Leaves are similar to U. americana, but smaller. 0.75" to 2.25" long. 0.33" to 1" wide. Oblique leaf base. Serrate leaf margins. Leaves have pubescent underside. 12 or less pairs on veins, cause leaf surface to be rough. Dark green leaf color. No terminal bud. • Fall foliage: Turns yellowish-brown. Not ornamentally important. Better fall color in southern states.
Growth Rate: Moderate to fast. • Size: up to 50' tall and almost as wide.
Landscape Uses: For fast growth. For beautiful bark . Street tree . Lawn tree. Good urban tree. • Liabilities: Few insect problems. • Care: Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,765 meters (0 to 9,072 feet).
Culture: Easily transplanted. PH adaptable. Prefers moist, well-drained, fertile soil. Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease .
Soil: Tolerates poor soil. • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun or part shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Ulmus campestris L. P. P. • Ulmus carpinifolia auct. non Ruppius Ex G. Suckow • Ulmus minor auct. non P. Mill.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Ulmus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 75 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
U. alata (Winged Elm) · U. alata 'Lace Parasol' (Winged Elm) · U. americana (American Elm) · U. americana 'American Liberty' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Ascendens' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Delaware #2' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Jefferson' (American Elm) · U. americana 'New Harmony' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Pioneer' (Pioneer American Elm) · U. americana 'Princeton' (American Elm) · U. americana 'St Croix' (American Elm 'st. Croix') · U. americana 'Valley Forge' (Valley Forge American Elm) · U. carpinifolia 'Homestead' (Homestead Smoothleaf Elm) · U. crassifolia (Cedar Elm) · U. davidiana (Japanese Elm) · U. glabra (Scots Elm) · U. glabra 'Camperdownii' (Camperdown Elm) · U. laevis (European White Elm) · U. parviflora (Elm) · U. parviflora 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. parvifolia (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Allee' (Allee Lacebark Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Athena' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'A. Ross Central Park' (Central Park Splendor Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Bosque' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Brea' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Burgundy' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Catlin' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Central Park Splendor' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Chessins' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Cork Bark' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Corticosa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Drake' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Dynasty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'D.b. Cole' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ed Wood' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Elsmo' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer II' (Allee® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer I' (Athena® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Frosty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Geisha' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Glory' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hallelujah' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hokkaido' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Jade Empress' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'King's Choice' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Matthew' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Milliken' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ohio' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Pathfinder' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Red Fall' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Seiju' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Sempervirens' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'State Fair' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'The Thinker' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'True Green' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Yatsubusa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Zettler' (Chinese Elm) · U. procera (English Elm) · U. pumila (Chinese Elm) · U. pumila 'Beijing Gold' (Siberian Elm) · U. rubra (Red Elm) · U. serotina (September Elm) · U. thomasii (Cork Elm) · U. Vada = 'Wanoux' (Elm [vada]) · U. x hollandica (Dutch Elm) · U. x hollandica 'Jacqueline Hillier' (Dutch Elm) · U. 'Accolade' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Arno' (Elm 'arno') · U. 'Fiorente' (Elm 'fiorente') · U. 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. 'Green King' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Patriot' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Pioneer' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Triumph' (Hybrid Elm)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645783
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19055
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490765
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:111938-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 40847
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19055
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 302296-2
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ULCH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 67230
- Liguo Fu, Yiqun Xin & Alan Whittemore "Ulmaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Susan L. Sherman-Broyles "Ulmus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ulmus parvifolia". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 494.820 meters (1,623.425 feet), Standard Deviation = 781.290 based on 50 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]