or deciduous. Winter buds
, rarely naked; axillary buds developed; terminal
bud usually dying back early. Stipules usually membranous, caducous
. Leaves simple
, alternate or rarely opposite, usually distichous, petiolate
; leaf blade
pinnately veined, basally 3(or 5) -veined, margin
entire or serrate. Inflorescences axillary
. Flowers monochlamydeous
, or rarely unisexual
or polygamous. Perianth lobes
4-9, imbricate or rarely valvate
or caducous. Stamens usually equal in number to and opposite perianth lobes, opposite, basally adnate
to tepals; filaments
2-celled, longitudinally fissured
. Pistil 2-carpellate; ovary superior, 1(or 2) -loculed; ovule 1, suspended, anatropous
; integuments 2. Style very short; stigmas 2, linear
. Fruit samara, drupes, or winged
, apically usually with persistent stigmas. Endosperm scanty or absent; embryo erect
, or involute
; cotyledons flat, curved, or flexed. Seedling epigeous.
About 16 genera and ca. 230 species: widespread in temperate and tropical areas; eight genera (one endemic) and 46 species (23 endemic) in China.
Recent research strongly suggests that the subfamily Celtidoideae (Aphananthe, Celtis, Gironniera, Pteroceltis, and Trema) is not the closest relative of the subfamily Ulmoideae (Hemiptelea, Ulmus, and Zelkova) . It would probably be more accurate to exclude Celtidoideae from Ulmaceae, and move it to Cannabaceae, rather than treating it as a separate family , Celtidaceae. More data are needed before a stable, new classification of the Urticales can be produced . Until these data are available, it is more practical to retain the traditional circumscription of Ulmaceae.
Most species of this family yield fine timber, the cortex is a good substitute for hemp , the fruit are edible, and the seed oil is used medicinally and industrially. Many species of Ulmaceae are cultivated, and it is not always certain whether specimens are from wild or cultivated plants .
, less often shrubs
, to 35 m
; crowns variable. Bark
gray, brown, or olive to reddish, tan, or orange, deeply furrowed
, sometimes with plates
when young in Ulmus glabra ). Branches unarmed
, slender to stout, some with corky wings
. Leaves sometimes tardily deciduous; stipules falling early. Leaf blade
, sometimes cordate or rounded
to cuneate, margins
serrate to doubly serrate; venation
pinnate. Inflorescences fascicles, racemes
, or cymes, pedunculate
, subtended by 2 bracts. Flowers on branches of previous season
, appearing in spring
before leaves or in fall
or sessile; calyx 3-9-lobed; stamens 3-9; styles persistent
, deeply 2-lobed. Fruits samaras, usually flattened, membranously winged
Species 20-40: temperate regions , Northern Hemisphere, most in Eurasia .
A recent chloroplast DNA study (S. J. Wiegrefe et al. 1994) has led to the proposal of a new subgeneric and sectional classification of elms. The chloroplast DNA data are supported by morphologic, chemical, and nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence and indicate that the "rock" or hard elms ( Ulmus serotina, U. thomasii, U. crassifolia, and U. alata ) are more closely related than indicated by previous subgeneric treatments (C. K . Schneider 1916; I. A. Grudzinskaya 1980).
Most identification manuals include the introduced species , Ulmus glabra, U. procera, and U. parvifolia, and indicate that they are frequently naturalized . That may well be true. Available herbarium specimens are often inadequately labeled or do not reflect current occurrences. Ease of naturalization can be neither corroborated nor disproved. I include the three species in this treatment because they are known to persist and sometimes naturalize locally where the species have been planted. Extensive field work and collection of U. glabra and U. procera are needed to document their naturalized distributions. Ulmus parvifolia has been widely planted in groves and hedgerows in the Midwest and might well be expected to have become naturalized in more rural settings (S. Shetler, pers. comm. , 1995).
Street and field elms throughout much of North America have been killed by Dutch elm disease . The pathogen responsible for the disease is Ceratocystis ulmi, a fungus native to Europe that was first discovered in North America in Colorado in the 1930s. Since the rapid spread of the disease in the 1960s, much research has been devoted to development of disease-resistant elms (R. J. Stipes and R. J. Campana 1981). Various hybridization projects, including cloning of disease-resistant elms by the American Research Institute, have been started across the country. Ulmus parvifolia and U. pumila have varying degrees of disease resistance and are utilized as shade trees or in breeding programs (see U. pumila below). Apparently Dutch elm disease also affects U. parviflora, U. glabra, and U. procera; certainly the latter two species are more common as seedlings than as trees.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Ulmus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 75 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
U. alata (Winged Elm) · U. alata 'Lace Parasol' (Winged Elm) · U. americana (American Elm) · U. americana 'American Liberty' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Ascendens' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Delaware #2' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Jefferson' (American Elm) · U. americana 'New Harmony' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Pioneer' (Pioneer American Elm) · U. americana 'Princeton' (American Elm) · U. americana 'St Croix' (American Elm 'st. Croix') · U. americana 'Valley Forge' (Valley Forge American Elm) · U. carpinifolia 'Homestead' (Homestead Smoothleaf Elm) · U. crassifolia (Cedar Elm) · U. davidiana (Japanese Elm) · U. glabra (Scots Elm) · U. glabra 'Camperdownii' (Camperdown Elm) · U. laevis (European White Elm) · U. parviflora (Elm) · U. parviflora 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. parvifolia (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Allee' (Allee Lacebark Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Athena' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'A. Ross Central Park' (Central Park Splendor Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Bosque' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Brea' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Burgundy' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Catlin' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Central Park Splendor' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Chessins' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Cork Bark' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Corticosa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Drake' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Dynasty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'D.b. Cole' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ed Wood' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Elsmo' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer II' (Allee® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer I' (Athena® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Frosty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Geisha' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Glory' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hallelujah' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hokkaido' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Jade Empress' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'King's Choice' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Matthew' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Milliken' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ohio' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Pathfinder' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Red Fall' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Seiju' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Sempervirens' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'State Fair' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'The Thinker' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'True Green' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Yatsubusa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Zettler' (Chinese Elm) · U. procera (English Elm) · U. pumila (Chinese Elm) · U. pumila 'Beijing Gold' (Siberian Elm) · U. rubra (Red Elm) · U. serotina (September Elm) · U. thomasii (Cork Elm) · U. Vada = 'Wanoux' (Elm [vada]) · U. x hollandica (Dutch Elm) · U. x hollandica 'Jacqueline Hillier' (Dutch Elm) · U. 'Accolade' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Arno' (Elm 'arno') · U. 'Fiorente' (Elm 'fiorente') · U. 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. 'Green King' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Patriot' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Pioneer' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Triumph' (Hybrid Elm)
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- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 278.
- Hand-list of trees and shrubs, excluding Coniferae, grown in Arboretum. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1902 url p. 613.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley. A list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River, Minneapolis[Harrison & Smith, State Printers]1892. url .
- The silva of North America: a description of the trees which grow naturally in North America exclusive of Mexico /by Charles Sprague Sargent. .. illustrated with figures and analyses drawn from nature by Charles Edward Faxon. .. 14 1902 Boston, New York: Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1891-1902. url p. 149, p. 172, p. 43.
- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url p. 1855.
- Fu Likuo, Chen Chiajui & Tang Yancheng. 1998. Ulmaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 334, 413.
- Green, P. S. 1964. Registration of cultivar names in Ulmus. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 24: 41-80.
- Sherman, S. L. 1987. Flavonoid Systematics of Ulmus L. in the United States. M.S. thesis. University of Georgia.
- Sherman, S. L. and D. E. Giannasi. 1988. Foliar flavonoids of Ulmus in eastern North America. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 16: 51-56.
- Stipes, R. J. and R. J. Campana, eds. 1981. Compendium of Elm Diseases. St. Paul.
- Stockmarr, J. 1974. SEM studies on pollen grains of North European Ulmus species. Grana 14: 103-107.
- Wheeler, E., C. A. LaPasha, and Regis B. Miller. 1988. Wood anatomy of elm (Ulmus) and hackberry (Celtis) species native to the United States. I. A. W. A. Bull., N.S. 10: 5-26.
- Wiegrefe, S. J., K. J. Sytsma, and R. P. Guries. 1994. Phylogeny of elms (Ulmus, Ulmaceae): Molecular evidence for a sectional classification. Syst. Bot. 19: 590-612.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10813482
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15887069
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:856892-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 856892-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3713510
- Liguo Fu, Yiqun Xin & Alan Whittemore "Ulmaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Susan L. Sherman-Broyles "Ulmus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]