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Common Names in English:
Cedar Elm, Basket Elm, Southern Rock Elm
Common Names in unspecified:
or deciduous. Winter buds
, rarely naked; axillary buds developed; terminal
bud usually dying back early. Stipules usually membranous, caducous
. Leaves simple
, alternate or rarely opposite, usually distichous, petiolate
; leaf blade
pinnately veined, basally 3(or 5) -veined, margin
entire or serrate. Inflorescences axillary
. Flowers monochlamydeous
, or rarely unisexual
or polygamous. Perianth lobes
4-9, imbricate or rarely valvate
or caducous. Stamens usually equal in number to and opposite perianth lobes, opposite, basally adnate
to tepals; filaments
2-celled, longitudinally fissured
. Pistil 2-carpellate; ovary superior, 1(or 2) -loculed; ovule 1, suspended, anatropous
; integuments 2. Style very short; stigmas 2, linear
. Fruit samara, drupes, or winged
, apically usually with persistent stigmas. Endosperm scanty or absent; embryo erect
, or involute
; cotyledons flat, curved, or flexed. Seedling epigeous.
About 16 genera and ca. 230 species: widespread in temperate and tropical areas; eight genera (one endemic) and 46 species (23 endemic) in China.
Recent research strongly suggests that the subfamily Celtidoideae (Aphananthe, Celtis, Gironniera, Pteroceltis, and Trema) is not the closest relative of the subfamily Ulmoideae (Hemiptelea, Ulmus, and Zelkova) . It would probably be more accurate to exclude Celtidoideae from Ulmaceae, and move it to Cannabaceae, rather than treating it as a separate family , Celtidaceae. More data are needed before a stable, new classification of the Urticales can be produced . Until these data are available, it is more practical to retain the traditional circumscription of Ulmaceae.
Most species of this family yield fine timber, the cortex is a good substitute for hemp , the fruit are edible, and the seed oil is used medicinally and industrially. Many species of Ulmaceae are cultivated, and it is not always certain whether specimens are from wild or cultivated plants .
, less often shrubs
, to 35 m
; crowns variable. Bark
gray, brown, or olive to reddish, tan, or orange, deeply furrowed
, sometimes with plates
when young in Ulmus glabra ). Branches unarmed
, slender to stout, some with corky wings
. Leaves sometimes tardily deciduous; stipules falling early. Leaf blade
, sometimes cordate or rounded
to cuneate, margins
serrate to doubly serrate; venation
pinnate. Inflorescences fascicles, racemes
, or cymes, pedunculate
, subtended by 2 bracts. Flowers on branches of previous season
, appearing in spring
before leaves or in fall
or sessile; calyx 3-9-lobed; stamens 3-9; styles persistent
, deeply 2-lobed. Fruits samaras, usually flattened, membranously winged
Species 20-40: temperate regions , Northern Hemisphere, most in Eurasia .
A recent chloroplast DNA study (S. J. Wiegrefe et al. 1994) has led to the proposal of a new subgeneric and sectional classification of elms. The chloroplast DNA data are supported by morphologic, chemical, and nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence and indicate that the "rock" or hard elms ( Ulmus serotina, U. thomasii, U. crassifolia, and U. alata ) are more closely related than indicated by previous subgeneric treatments (C. K . Schneider 1916; I. A. Grudzinskaya 1980).
Most identification manuals include the introduced species , Ulmus glabra, U. procera, and U. parvifolia, and indicate that they are frequently naturalized . That may well be true. Available herbarium specimens are often inadequately labeled or do not reflect current occurrences. Ease of naturalization can be neither corroborated nor disproved. I include the three species in this treatment because they are known to persist and sometimes naturalize locally where the species have been planted. Extensive field work and collection of U. glabra and U. procera are needed to document their naturalized distributions. Ulmus parvifolia has been widely planted in groves and hedgerows in the Midwest and might well be expected to have become naturalized in more rural settings (S. Shetler, pers. comm. , 1995).
Street and field elms throughout much of North America have been killed by Dutch elm disease . The pathogen responsible for the disease is Ceratocystis ulmi, a fungus native to Europe that was first discovered in North America in Colorado in the 1930s. Since the rapid spread of the disease in the 1960s, much research has been devoted to development of disease-resistant elms (R. J. Stipes and R. J. Campana 1981). Various hybridization projects, including cloning of disease-resistant elms by the American Research Institute, have been started across the country. Ulmus parvifolia and U. pumila have varying degrees of disease resistance and are utilized as shade trees or in breeding programs (see U. pumila below). Apparently Dutch elm disease also affects U. parviflora, U. glabra, and U. procera; certainly the latter two species are more common as seedlings than as trees.
Species Ulmus crassifolia
, 24-27 m
; crowns rounded
to narrow. Bark
light brown with shallow
and large plates
hard. Branches often with opposite
reddish brown, pubescent
. Buds brown, apex acute,
dark brown, shiny, glabrous
. Leaves: petiole
1.5 mm, pubescent. Leaf blade
, 2.5-5 × 1.3-2
or rounded to cuneate, margins
serrate, apex obtuse
; surfaces abaxially softly pubescent, adaxially
harshly pubescent. Inflorescences fascicles, 2-5-flowered, 0.5 cm;
pedicel 0.75-1 cm. Flowers: calyx deeply lobed
, more than 1/2 its
; stamens 5-6, anthers
reddish purple; stigmas
white, pubescent, exserted and spreading
. Samaras green to tan, elliptic
, ca. 0.75-1. cm, pubescent, margins ciliate
, cilia ca. 0.5
Seeds somewhat thickened, not inflated
. 2 n = 28. [source]
Except for the Suwanee River valley in Florida, Ulmus crassifolia has not been found east of Webster County, Mississippi. It hybridizes with U. serotina. [source]
Habit: Tree • Growth Form: Single Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August. • Flower Color: Green • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 67000 • Seed Spread Rate: Rapid • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid • Mature Height (feet): 90.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 35 • Size: 30-40' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 550 meters (0 to 1,804 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: Yes • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 15-20' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Low • Minimum pH: 5.5 • Maximum pH: 7.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 18 • Maximum Precipitation: 58 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): 2 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 220 • Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Nutt. Publication : Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 5: 169 1835 [late 1835]
Members of the genus Ulmus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 75 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
U. alata (Winged Elm) · U. alata 'Lace Parasol' (Winged Elm) · U. americana (American Elm) · U. americana 'American Liberty' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Ascendens' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Delaware #2' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Jefferson' (American Elm) · U. americana 'New Harmony' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Pioneer' (Pioneer American Elm) · U. americana 'Princeton' (American Elm) · U. americana 'St Croix' (American Elm 'st. Croix') · U. americana 'Valley Forge' (Valley Forge American Elm) · U. carpinifolia 'Homestead' (Homestead Smoothleaf Elm) · U. crassifolia (Cedar Elm) · U. davidiana (Japanese Elm) · U. glabra (Scots Elm) · U. glabra 'Camperdownii' (Camperdown Elm) · U. laevis (European White Elm) · U. parviflora (Elm) · U. parviflora 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. parvifolia (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Allee' (Allee Lacebark Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Athena' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'A. Ross Central Park' (Central Park Splendor Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Bosque' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Brea' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Burgundy' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Catlin' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Central Park Splendor' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Chessins' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Cork Bark' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Corticosa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Drake' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Dynasty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'D.b. Cole' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ed Wood' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Elsmo' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer II' (Allee® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer I' (Athena® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Frosty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Geisha' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Glory' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hallelujah' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hokkaido' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Jade Empress' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'King's Choice' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Matthew' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Milliken' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ohio' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Pathfinder' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Red Fall' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Seiju' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Sempervirens' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'State Fair' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'The Thinker' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'True Green' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Yatsubusa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Zettler' (Chinese Elm) · U. procera (English Elm) · U. pumila (Chinese Elm) · U. pumila 'Beijing Gold' (Siberian Elm) · U. rubra (Red Elm) · U. serotina (September Elm) · U. thomasii (Cork Elm) · U. Vada = 'Wanoux' (Elm [vada]) · U. x hollandica (Dutch Elm) · U. x hollandica 'Jacqueline Hillier' (Dutch Elm) · U. 'Accolade' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Arno' (Elm 'arno') · U. 'Fiorente' (Elm 'fiorente') · U. 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. 'Green King' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Patriot' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Pioneer' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Triumph' (Hybrid Elm)
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- Wheeler, E., C. A. LaPasha, and Regis B. Miller. 1988. Wood anatomy of elm (Ulmus) and hackberry (Celtis) species native to the United States. I. A. W. A. Bull., N.S. 10: 5-26.
- Wiegrefe, S. J., K. J. Sytsma, and R. P. Guries. 1994. Phylogeny of elms (Ulmus, Ulmaceae): Molecular evidence for a sectional classification. Syst. Bot. 19: 590-612.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 01, 2007:
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645781
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19052
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13731287
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:856840-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 40826
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19052
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 856840-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ULCR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 67231
- Liguo Fu, Yiqun Xin & Alan Whittemore "Ulmaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 1. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Susan L. Sherman-Broyles "Ulmus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ulmus crassifolia". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 100.350 meters (329.232 feet), Standard Deviation = 111.700 based on 136 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]