Majestic, arching , deciduous tree has toothed , dark green foliage . Paper, pale green seeds in spring . Magnificent yellow fall color. Height to 100', width to 80'. Fast growth rate . Needs full sun . Use as specimen, and in borders .
- Ulmus americana is the state tree for Massachusetts and for North Dakota. [source]
- The American elm is susceptible to numerous diseases, including Dutch elm disease . Ulmus americana has been a street and shade tree of choice because of its fast growth and pleasant shape and size. The species still exists in substantial numbers both as shade trees and in nature. [source]
- Native American tribes frequently used parts of Ulmus americana for a variety of medicinal purposes, including treatment of coughs and colds, sore eyes, dysentary, diarrhea , broken bones, gonorrhea, and pulmonary hemorrhage, as a gynecological aid, as a bath for appendicitis, and as a wash for gunwounds (D. E. Moerman 1986). [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
American Elm, Gray Elm, Princeton American Elm, Swamp Elm, Water Elm, White Elm
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Amerikanische Ulme, Weißulme
or deciduous. Winter buds
, rarely naked; axillary buds developed; terminal
bud usually dying back early. Stipules usually membranous, caducous
. Leaves simple
, alternate or rarely opposite, usually distichous, petiolate
; leaf blade
pinnately veined, basally 3(or 5) -veined, margin
entire or serrate. Inflorescences axillary
. Flowers monochlamydeous
, or rarely unisexual
or polygamous. Perianth lobes
4-9, imbricate or rarely valvate
or caducous. Stamens usually equal in number to and opposite perianth lobes, opposite, basally adnate
to tepals; filaments
2-celled, longitudinally fissured
. Pistil 2-carpellate; ovary superior, 1(or 2) -loculed; ovule 1, suspended, anatropous
; integuments 2. Style very short; stigmas 2, linear
. Fruit samara, drupes, or winged
, apically usually with persistent stigmas. Endosperm scanty or absent; embryo erect
, or involute
; cotyledons flat, curved, or flexed. Seedling epigeous.
About 16 genera and ca. 230 species: widespread in temperate and tropical areas; eight genera (one endemic) and 46 species (23 endemic) in China.
Recent research strongly suggests that the subfamily Celtidoideae (Aphananthe, Celtis, Gironniera, Pteroceltis, and Trema) is not the closest relative of the subfamily Ulmoideae (Hemiptelea, Ulmus, and Zelkova) . It would probably be more accurate to exclude Celtidoideae from Ulmaceae, and move it to Cannabaceae, rather than treating it as a separate family , Celtidaceae. More data are needed before a stable, new classification of the Urticales can be produced . Until these data are available, it is more practical to retain the traditional circumscription of Ulmaceae.
Most species of this family yield fine timber, the cortex is a good substitute for hemp , the fruit are edible, and the seed oil is used medicinally and industrially. Many species of Ulmaceae are cultivated, and it is not always certain whether specimens are from wild or cultivated plants .
, less often shrubs
, to 35 m
; crowns variable. Bark
gray, brown, or olive to reddish, tan, or orange, deeply furrowed
, sometimes with plates
when young in Ulmus glabra ). Branches unarmed
, slender to stout, some with corky wings
. Leaves sometimes tardily deciduous; stipules falling early. Leaf blade
, sometimes cordate or rounded
to cuneate, margins
serrate to doubly serrate; venation
pinnate. Inflorescences fascicles, racemes
, or cymes, pedunculate
, subtended by 2 bracts. Flowers on branches of previous season
, appearing in spring
before leaves or in fall
or sessile; calyx 3-9-lobed; stamens 3-9; styles persistent
, deeply 2-lobed. Fruits samaras, usually flattened, membranously winged
Species 20-40: temperate regions , Northern Hemisphere, most in Eurasia .
A recent chloroplast DNA study (S. J. Wiegrefe et al. 1994) has led to the proposal of a new subgeneric and sectional classification of elms. The chloroplast DNA data are supported by morphologic, chemical, and nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence and indicate that the "rock" or hard elms ( Ulmus serotina, U. thomasii, U. crassifolia, and U. alata ) are more closely related than indicated by previous subgeneric treatments (C. K . Schneider 1916; I. A. Grudzinskaya 1980).
Most identification manuals include the introduced species , Ulmus glabra, U. procera, and U. parvifolia, and indicate that they are frequently naturalized . That may well be true. Available herbarium specimens are often inadequately labeled or do not reflect current occurrences. Ease of naturalization can be neither corroborated nor disproved. I include the three species in this treatment because they are known to persist and sometimes naturalize locally where the species have been planted. Extensive field work and collection of U. glabra and U. procera are needed to document their naturalized distributions. Ulmus parvifolia has been widely planted in groves and hedgerows in the Midwest and might well be expected to have become naturalized in more rural settings (S. Shetler, pers. comm. , 1995).
Street and field elms throughout much of North America have been killed by Dutch elm disease . The pathogen responsible for the disease is Ceratocystis ulmi, a fungus native to Europe that was first discovered in North America in Colorado in the 1930s. Since the rapid spread of the disease in the 1960s, much research has been devoted to development of disease-resistant elms (R. J. Stipes and R. J. Campana 1981). Various hybridization projects, including cloning of disease-resistant elms by the American Research Institute, have been started across the country. Ulmus parvifolia and U. pumila have varying degrees of disease resistance and are utilized as shade trees or in breeding programs (see U. pumila below). Apparently Dutch elm disease also affects U. parviflora, U. glabra, and U. procera; certainly the latter two species are more common as seedlings than as trees.
Species Ulmus americana
Trees , 21-35 m ; crowns spreading , commonly vase-shaped. Bark light brown to gray, deeply fissured or split into plates . Wood soft. Branches pendulous, old-growth branches smooth , not winged ; twigs brown, pubescent to glabrous . Buds brown, apex acute, glabrous; scales reddish brown, pubescent. Leaves: petiole ca. 5 mm, glabrous to pubescent. Leaf blade oval to oblong-obovate, 7-14 × 3-7 cm, base oblique , margins doubly serrate, apex acute to acuminate; surfaces abaxially glabrous to slightly pubescent, tufts in axils of veins, adaxially glabrous to scabrous . Inflorescences fascicles, less than 2.5 cm, flowers and fruits drooping on elongate pedicels; pedicel 1-2 cm. Flowers: calyx shallowly lobed , slightly asymmetric , lobes 7-9, margins ciliate ; stamens 7-9; anthers red; stigmas white-ciliate, deeply divided . Samaras yellow-cream when mature , sometimes tinged with reddish purple (s range of species), ovate , ca. 1 cm, narrowly winged, margins ciliate, cilia yellow to white, to 1 mm. Seeds thickened, not inflated . 2 n = 56. [source]
ID Features: Deeply ridged bark with criss cross pattern. Samaras in spring. No terminal buds. Rough textured leaves with many paired veins. Alternate leaf arrangement. Oblique leaf base. Doubly, serrate leaf margins. Pubescent stems. Deciduous, generally vase-shaped.
Flowers: Not of any ornamental value. • Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: red
Seeds: Fruit: Rounded samaras. Notched at top. 0.5" in diameter. Greenish yellow in color. Ripens May through June. Not noticeable.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple leaves with doubly serrated leaf margins. Leave size varies from 3" to 6" long. Oblique leaf base. Serrate leaf margins. Leaves have pubescent underside. There are approx. 15 pairs on veins on each leaf. Leaf surface is rough. Short petiole . Dark green leaf color. No terminal bud. • Fall foliage: Turns yellowish-brown. Not ornamentally important.
Landscape Uses: For beautiful habit. Street tree . Lawn tree. • Liabilities: Dutch Elm Disease has nearly wiped out species in North America. Wetwood. Cankers . Leaf curl . Leaf spot. Powdery mildew . Aphids. Elm leaf miner. Elm leaf beetle.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,108 meters (0 to 10,197 feet).
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Ulmus americana var. floridana (Chapman) Little • Ulmus floridana Chapman
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 226 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Ulmus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 75 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
U. alata (Winged Elm) · U. alata 'Lace Parasol' (Winged Elm) · U. americana (American Elm) · U. americana 'American Liberty' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Ascendens' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Delaware #2' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Jefferson' (American Elm) · U. americana 'New Harmony' (American Elm) · U. americana 'Pioneer' (Pioneer American Elm) · U. americana 'Princeton' (American Elm) · U. americana 'St Croix' (American Elm 'st. Croix') · U. americana 'Valley Forge' (Valley Forge American Elm) · U. carpinifolia 'Homestead' (Homestead Smoothleaf Elm) · U. crassifolia (Cedar Elm) · U. davidiana (Japanese Elm) · U. glabra (Scots Elm) · U. glabra 'Camperdownii' (Camperdown Elm) · U. laevis (European White Elm) · U. parviflora (Elm) · U. parviflora 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. parvifolia (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Allee' (Allee Lacebark Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Athena' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'A. Ross Central Park' (Central Park Splendor Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Bosque' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Brea' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Burgundy' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Catlin' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Central Park Splendor' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Chessins' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Cork Bark' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Corticosa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Drake' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Dynasty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'D.b. Cole' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ed Wood' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Elsmo' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer II' (Allee® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Emer I' (Athena® Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Frosty' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Geisha' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Glory' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hallelujah' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Hokkaido' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Jade Empress' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'King's Choice' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Matthew' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Milliken' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Ohio' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Pathfinder' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Red Fall' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Seiju' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Sempervirens' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'State Fair' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'The Thinker' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'True Green' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Yatsubusa' (Chinese Elm) · U. parvifolia 'Zettler' (Chinese Elm) · U. procera (English Elm) · U. pumila (Chinese Elm) · U. pumila 'Beijing Gold' (Siberian Elm) · U. rubra (Red Elm) · U. serotina (September Elm) · U. thomasii (Cork Elm) · U. Vada = 'Wanoux' (Elm [vada]) · U. x hollandica (Dutch Elm) · U. x hollandica 'Jacqueline Hillier' (Dutch Elm) · U. 'Accolade' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Arno' (Elm 'arno') · U. 'Fiorente' (Elm 'fiorente') · U. 'Frontier' (Frontier Elm) · U. 'Green King' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Patriot' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Pioneer' (Hybrid Elm) · U. 'Triumph' (Hybrid Elm)
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- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645778
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19049
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13851940
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:856816-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 40817
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19049
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 856815-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ULFL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 11530
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- Mean = 250.050 meters (820.374 feet), Standard Deviation = 237.190 based on 1,126 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]