Common Names in English:
American Globeflower, American Globe-Flower, Spreading Globe-Flower, Spreading Globeflower
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from short caudices. Leaves basal and cauline, proximal
, distal leaves sessile or nearly so; cauline leaves alternate. Leaf blade
deeply palmately divided
into (3-) 5-7 segments, segments obovate
, ± 3-lobed, margins
, often incised. Inflorescences terminal
, 1-3[-7]-flowered open cymes or flowers solitary; peduncle 2-30 cm; bracts leaflike, not forming involucre. Flowers bisexual
, radially symmetric
; sepals not persistent
in fruit, (4-) 5-9[-30], white to orange-yellow [orange-red or purplish], ± plane
, orbiculate, or obovate, sometimes short-clawed, 10-30 mm; petals 5-25, distinct
, yellow or orange, plane with cupped base
of blade, linear-oblong [ovate
], ± clawed, 2-10[-40] mm; nectary
within pocketlike base of blade; stamens 20-75; filaments
; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils 5-28[-50], simple
; ovules 4-5(-9) per pistil; style present. Fruits follicles, aggregate, sessile, oblong
, sides transversely veined; beak
terminal, straight, 2-4 mm.
Seeds black or dark brown, faceted
to angular, dull
Species ca. 30: north temperate and arctic regions, North America, Europe, Asia.
As many as 10 Eurasian species of Trollius have been cultivated in North America as ornamentals . Of these, only T. europaeus Linnaeus has been reported to escape . The species infrequently persists near old dwellings in New Brunswick (B .Boivin 1966; H.Hinds, pers. comm. ). Trollius europaeus may be distinguished from all North American species by its globose flowers with strongly incurved sepals (in North American species flowers are shallowly bowl-shaped with sepals ± spreading ).
Species Trollius laxus
Stems to 0.5-5.2 dm, base
with few petioles
persisting from previous year. Leaves: basal leaves
to 5-30 cm; cauline leaves 2-5, base scarcely membranous or clasping
Flowers 2.5-5 cm diam.; sepals 5-7(-9), spreading
, bright to pale
yellow when fresh, ovate
or nearly orbiculate, 10-20 mm;
petals 10-15(-25), yellow, 1/2-2/3 length
of stamens when pollen
shed, 3-6 mm.
Follicles usually 5-12, 8-12 mm including beak
usually straight or slightly incurved
(rarely slightly recurved).
2 n =32. [source]
Trollius laxus is closely related to the widespread, relatively common, western species T. albiflorus. Morphologically, the two are separated only by sepal color and the tendency for T. albiflorus to have slightly recurved follicular beaks and slightly smaller seeds. [source]
Trollius laxus has been extirpated from central Pennsylvania. The species has been reported from Michigan; E. G. Voss (1972+, vol. 2) cast doubt on its occurrence there because no specimens to substantiate the reports have been found. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May, June, July. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 18-24" tall.
Calcareous soils (rarely not calcareous) in alkaline meadows and open swamps ; 100-500 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Trollius americanus de Candolle
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Trollius
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 15 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. chinensis (Chinese Globe Flower) · T. chinensis 'Golden Queen' (Golden Queen Chinese Globe Flower) · T. europaeus (European Globeflower) · T. europaeus europaeus (European Globeflower) · T. europaeus 'Superbus' (Superbus Globe Flower) · T. laxus (American Globeflower) · T. laxus albiflorus (American Globeflower) · T. laxus laxus (American Globeflower) · T. laxus var. albi-florus (Spreading Globeflower) · T. laxus subsp. albiflorus (American Globeflower) · T. laxus 'Albiflorus' (American Globeflower) · T. riederianus (Kamchatka Globeflower) · T. x cultorum (Garden Globeflower Trollius X Cultorum) · T. x cultorum 'Earliest of All' (Garden Globeflower) · T. x cultorum 'Prichard's Giant' (Prichard's Giant Globeflower)
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- Wholesale catalogue of American trees, shrubs, plants, and seeds, cultivated and for sale at the Linn©an Botanic Garden and nurseries, near New-York. William Prince, proprietor. .. New-York, Printed by T. and J. Swords, 1827. url p. 158.
- Wild flowers of New York, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1918. url , p. 329, p. 360, p. 360.
- Wild flowers of the North American mountains. New York, McBride, 1917. url , p. 130, p. 16.
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- Zoe:a biological journal. 2 1891 San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 289.
- Doroszewska, A. 1974. The genus Trollius L., a taxonomical study. Monogr. Bot. 41: 1-167, plates 1-16.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed December 28, 2006. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 4 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- "Trollius laxus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (May 01, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 07, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645605
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18806
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13729726
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:715115-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 316198
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18806
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TRLAL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 66650
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Bruce D. Parfitt "Trollius". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Trollius laxus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 1,460.960 meters (4,793.176 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,007.580 based on 134 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]