, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
Herbs, rarely subshrubs
with swollen base
or with 1 ray and apparently simple
. Leaves alternate, simple or palmately 3-5-lobed, palmately veined, margin
serrate. Flowers solitary or arranged in small cymes or fascicles, axillary
, opposite to leaves, bisexual
; peduncle very short. Sepals 5, free
, usually with hooked
. Petals as many as sepals, free, thickened glands
on base of adaxial
surface. Stamens 5 to numerous
, subglobose, dehiscence longitudinal
, borne on androgynophore
; androgynophore fleshy, segmented
, short, with 5 glands opposite to petals. Ovary 2-5-loculed; ovules 2 per locule; style simple; stigma 2-5-lobed. Fruit a capsule nearly globose
, 3-6-valved, spiny
, loculicidally dehiscent
or indehiscent, spine tips pointed
, straight or hooked. Seeds with endosperm; cotyledons fleshy
Between 100 to 160 species: primarily in tropical and subtropical areas, several species are widespread weeds ; seven species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Blume Publication : Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 113 1825 [20 Aug 1825]
Members of the genus Triumfetta
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 9 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. bogotensis (Parquet Burr) · T. cordifolia (Cordleaf Burrbark) · T. lappula (Grandcousin) · T. pentandra (Fivestamen Burrbark) · T. rhomboidea (Burr Bush) · T. ruprestris (Little-Scale Threadfin) · T. semitriloba (Dadangsi) · T. tomentosa (Tomentose Burrbark) · T. velutina (African Burrbark)
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- A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon: containing descriptions of all the species of flowering plants indigenous to the island, and notes on their history, distribution, and uses: with an atlas of plates illustrating some of the more inte by Henry Trimen. London: Dulau, 1893-1931. url p. 33.
- An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, Manila, Bureau of Printing, 1922-26. url p. 31.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1911 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 23.
- Contributions to the flora of Siam [Aberdeen]Printed for the University1912- url p. 29.
- Contributions to the flora of Siam. .. / by William Grant Craib. .. [Aberdeen]: Printed for the University of Aberdeen, 1912- url p. 29.
- Flora hongkongensis: a description of the flowering plants and ferns of the island of Hongkong. By George Bentham. Published under the authority of Her Majesty's secretary of state for the colonies. London, L. Reeve, 1861. url p. 41.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- Feng Kuo-mei. 1984. Malvaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 1-102.
- Chang Hung-ta & Miau Ru-huai. 1989. Tiliaceae. In: Chang Hung-ta, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(1): 47-123.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8965509
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15884922
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:835761-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 835761-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1426544
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Malvaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 264,299, 302. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Triumfetta". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 258,260, 281. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]