Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Great White Trillium, Large Flowered Trillium, Large White Trillium, Showy Trillium, Snow Trillium, Trillium, Wake Robin, White Trillium, White Wake-Robin
Common Names in French:
; rhizomes subterranean
, horizontal or semierect, monopodial, unbranched or weakly branched, elongated to thick and fleshy
, compressed-shortened, distal end tapered to point
, apex bearing large terminal
cataphylls, and contractile, adventitious, ringed roots
. Scapes arising from terminal bud or axil of adjacent
(subterranean in T. petiolatum), erect
, straight (decumbent
, S-shaped in T. decumbens and T. reliquum). Bracts on mature
in whorl of 3, uniformly green or mottled
or sessile, venation
palmate-reticulate, with 3-5 major veins, ovate
. Inflorescences terminal, 1-flowered. Flowers: some totally to partially syncarpous
or sessile; sepals persistent
, 3, distinct
, green, maroon, or with maroon markings, foliaceous, oblong
, ovate, or lanceolate, alternating with bracts; petals shriveling after anthesis
, typically 3, erect, spreading
, or recurved, distinct, red, purple, pink, white, yellow, green, or combination
of these, ovate or obovate to linear
, sometimes clawed; stamens 6, alternating in 2 whorls of 3, erect, incurved
, or divergent; filaments
mostly short, basally expanded; anthers
2-locular, ± equaling or longer
than filaments, dehiscence extrorse
, or introrse
flat between (or in some species extending beyond) anther sacs
; ovary superior, proximal
portion 3-locular, 3- or 6-lobed, some axile
, some parietal
or a combination of both, distal portion forming stigmas; stigmas often persistent, 3, spreading, twisted, or erect, sometimes connate
, sessile or with very short style, linear to subulate
. Fruits capsular
, fleshy with obscure
sutures, not or rarely dehiscent
along sutures, each shed as unit
through abscission of thin-walled cells
. Seeds many, elliptic
, 2-4 mm, bearing white or yellowish, large, oily, myrmecochorous elaiosome (aril). x
= 5. 2n = 10 in all American species recorded.
Species 43: North America, Asia.
Trillium is traditionally divided into two subgenera , which overlap in some characters. Botanists consider subg. Trillium to be the more primitive group, because the genera considered closest to Trillium all have pedicellate flowers, as does subg. Trillium, except for one variety of T. pusillum that bears sessile to only barely pedicillate flowers.
There is not yet agreement among taxonomists about the relationships among the species within the genus. Certain ones, such as Trillium recurvatum and T. lancifolium, clearly are closely related, but the interrelationships of many others are not obvious. In the absence of definitive studies, the species are listed here alphabetically within subgenera. Several species of Trillium contain sapogenins that have been used medicinally as astringents, coagulants , expectorants , and uterine stimulants, hence the common names birthwort and Indian balm, and T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, and possibly other species have been utilized commercially as beth root (W. B . Zomlefer 1996). Fruits, seeds, and rhizomes of trilliums are generally considered to be poisonous. Deer, however, feed voraciously on T. grandiflorum plants, especially in early spring . Gardeners and wildflower enthusiasts, over most of the temperate zones of the world, consider trilliums to be among the most beautiful of wildflowers. Species of Trillium exhibit few and obscure structural differences, making key construction difficult (J. D. Freeman 1975).
Species Trillium grandiflorum
Rhizomes short, thick, praemorse
. Scapes (1-) 2-3(-many), round
, 1.5-3+ dm, thick, glabrous
. Bracts sessile or subsessile
(occasionally weakly cuneate basally) ; blade
dark green with maroon
overtones early, ovate-rhombic, 12-20 × 8-15 cm, apex acuminate.
Flower outfacing, erect
, odorless; sepals spreading
, flat, green,
very rarely streaked
with maroon-purple, lanceolate, 20-55 ×
12-23 mm, margins
entire, apex acuminate or acute; petals erect basally,
recurving somewhat above middle
obscuring ovary and base
of style, white or rarely pink, without
V-shaped or other markings, fading to dull
pinkish purple, veins
but not appearing engraved, shape
variable, lanceolate to oblong
, or, rarely, suborbicular
sides often parallel, 4-7.5 × 2-4 cm, thin-textured, base abruptly
attenuate, margins overlapping basally, rolled, undulate-wavy in
distal 1/2, apex ± acuminate; stamens straight or barely recurved,
9-27 mm; filaments
white, much shorter than anthers
, relatively thin;
anthers recurving slightly, pale
yellow, strongly yellow when pollen
exposed, long, 5-16 mm, slender, dehiscence introrse
; ovary inconspicuous,
pale green or white, ovoid
, 6-angled, 8-18 mm, basal attachment narrower
than ovary width; style barely united
for 0.5-2 mm or merely closely
grouped and separate; stigmas erect, becoming spreading, weakly connate
basally, pale green-white, uniformly linear
, 3-18 mm, equaling or
exceeding ovary, slender; pedicel erect-ascending to strongly erect,
2-8+ cm. Fruits pale green, odorless, ± globose
6-angled, 1.2-1.6 × 0.8-1.4 cm, mealy
, moist (not juicy). 2n
= 10. [source]
Most variants of Trillium grandiflorum have green stripes or markings on the petals, many with numerous (4-30+) extra petals and/or bracts, and, often, much-deformed, monstrous characteristics. G. R. Hooper et al. (1971) showed that mycoplasmic organisms were present in all such forms examined, and were absent from normal plants . Most such forms should not be named taxonomically but, unfortunately, many have been. Nearly all of those that I examined represented stages in the development of the mycoplasma infection . Trillium grandiflorum, unlike most trilliums, produces many-petaled œdouble forms. Forma roseum Farwell, opening a striking clear salmon-pink, occurs very rarely throughout the range , but is frequent in mixed or pure colonies along the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Batsch, 1802, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Trille [Latin, trilix, triple, alluding to the flowers having parts in threes]
- Specific epithet:
- (Michx.) Salisb.
opening a striking clear salmon-pink, occurs very
- Botanical name: - Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb.
- Form: opening a striking clear salmon-pink, occurs very
- Specific epithet: grandiflorum - (Michx.) Salisb.
- Genus: Trillium () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Trille [Latin, trilix, triple, alluding to the flowers having parts in threes]
- Family: Melanthiaceae () - Batsch, 1802, nom. cons.
- Order: Liliales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
T. erythrocarpum Curtis 1805 • Trillium rhomboideum Michaux Var. grandiflorum Michaux • Trillium rhomboideum Michx. var. grandiflorum Michx.
Basionym author: (Michx.)
Members of the genus Trillium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 58 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. albidum (Giant Trillium) · T. angustipetalum (Narrowpetal Wakerobin) · T. catesbaei (Bashful Wakerobin) · T. cernuum (Nodding Trillium) · T. chloropetalum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum (Torr.) Howell var. chloropetalum (Torr.) T.J.Howell (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum giganteum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum var. chloropetalum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum var. giganteum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. cuneatum (Little Sweet Betsy) · T. decipiens (Chattahoochee River Wakerobin) · T. decumbens (Trailing Trillium) · T. discolor (Mottled Wakerobin) · T. erectum (Red Erect Trillium) · T. erectum f. albiflorum (White Erect Trillium) · T. erectum var. japonicum (Stinking Benjamin) · T. flexipes (Bent Trillium) · T. foetidissimum (Mississippi River Wakerobin) · T. gracile (Sabine River Wakerobin) · T. grandiflorum (Great White Trillium) · T. grandiflorum f. polymerum 'Flore Pleno' (Double-Flowered American Wake-Robin) · T. grandiflorum Gothenburg pink strain (Great White Trillium) · T. grandiflorum 'Flore Pleno' (Trillium) · T. kamtschaticum (Trillium) · T. kurabayashi (Wake Robin) · T. kurabayashii (Giant Purple Wakerobin) · T. lancifolium (Lanceleaf Wakerobin) · T. ludovicianum (Louisiana Wakerobin) · T. luteum (Lemon Trillium) · T. maculatum (Spotted Wakerobin) · T. nivale (Dwarf White Wakerobin) · T. ovatum (Pacific Trillium) · T. ovatum oettingeri (Oettinger's Trillium) · T. ovatum 'Roy Elliott' (Western Trillium) · T. parviflorum (Smallflower Wakerobin) · T. persistens (Persistent Trillium) · T. petiolatum (Idaho Trillium) · T. pusillum (Dwarf Wakerobin) · T. pusillum var. ozarkanum (Ozark Wake-Robin) · T. pusillum var. pusillum (Dwarf Wakerobin) · T. pusillum var. virginianum (Virginia Wakerobin) · T. rectum (Stinking Benjamin) · T. recurvatum (Bloody Butcher) · T. reliquum (Confederate Wakerobin) · T. reliquum f. luteum (Relic Trillium) · T. rivale (Brook Wakerobin) · T. rugelii (Ill-Scented Wakerobin) · T. sessile (Common Toad Shade) · T. simile (Jeweled Wake Robin) · T. stamineum (Blue Ridge Wakerobin) · T. sulcatum (Barksdales Trillium) · T. texanum (Texas Trillium) · T. tschonoskii (Tschonoskis Wake Robin) · T. underwoodii (Lonbract Wakerobin) · T. undulatum (Painted Trillium) · T. vaseyi (Sweet Wakerobin) · T. viride (Wood Wakerobin) · T. viridescens (Tapertip Wakerobin)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662686
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-290665
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13754817
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:542553-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 410580
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43074
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 542553-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TRGR4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 66857