Common Names in English:
Common Toad Shade, Sessile Trillium, Toad Trillium, Toadshade
; rhizomes subterranean
, horizontal or semierect, monopodial, unbranched or weakly branched, elongated to thick and fleshy
, compressed-shortened, distal end tapered to point
, apex bearing large terminal
cataphylls, and contractile, adventitious, ringed roots
. Scapes arising from terminal bud or axil of adjacent
(subterranean in T. petiolatum), erect
, straight (decumbent
, S-shaped in T. decumbens and T. reliquum). Bracts on mature
in whorl of 3, uniformly green or mottled
or sessile, venation
palmate-reticulate, with 3-5 major veins, ovate
. Inflorescences terminal, 1-flowered. Flowers: some totally to partially syncarpous
or sessile; sepals persistent
, 3, distinct
, green, maroon, or with maroon markings, foliaceous, oblong
, ovate, or lanceolate, alternating with bracts; petals shriveling after anthesis
, typically 3, erect, spreading
, or recurved, distinct, red, purple, pink, white, yellow, green, or combination
of these, ovate or obovate to linear
, sometimes clawed; stamens 6, alternating in 2 whorls of 3, erect, incurved
, or divergent; filaments
mostly short, basally expanded; anthers
2-locular, ± equaling or longer
than filaments, dehiscence extrorse
, or introrse
flat between (or in some species extending beyond) anther sacs
; ovary superior, proximal
portion 3-locular, 3- or 6-lobed, some axile
, some parietal
or a combination of both, distal portion forming stigmas; stigmas often persistent, 3, spreading, twisted, or erect, sometimes connate
, sessile or with very short style, linear to subulate
. Fruits capsular
, fleshy with obscure
sutures, not or rarely dehiscent
along sutures, each shed as unit
through abscission of thin-walled cells
. Seeds many, elliptic
, 2-4 mm, bearing white or yellowish, large, oily, myrmecochorous elaiosome (aril). x
= 5. 2n = 10 in all American species recorded.
Species 43: North America, Asia.
Trillium is traditionally divided into two subgenera , which overlap in some characters. Botanists consider subg. Trillium to be the more primitive group, because the genera considered closest to Trillium all have pedicellate flowers, as does subg. Trillium, except for one variety of T. pusillum that bears sessile to only barely pedicillate flowers.
There is not yet agreement among taxonomists about the relationships among the species within the genus. Certain ones, such as Trillium recurvatum and T. lancifolium, clearly are closely related, but the interrelationships of many others are not obvious. In the absence of definitive studies, the species are listed here alphabetically within subgenera. Several species of Trillium contain sapogenins that have been used medicinally as astringents, coagulants , expectorants , and uterine stimulants, hence the common names birthwort and Indian balm, and T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, and possibly other species have been utilized commercially as beth root (W. B . Zomlefer 1996). Fruits, seeds, and rhizomes of trilliums are generally considered to be poisonous. Deer, however, feed voraciously on T. grandiflorum plants, especially in early spring . Gardeners and wildflower enthusiasts, over most of the temperate zones of the world, consider trilliums to be among the most beautiful of wildflowers. Species of Trillium exhibit few and obscure structural differences, making key construction difficult (J. D. Freeman 1975).
Species Trillium sessile
Rhizomes horizontal, brownish, thick, praemorse
. Scapes 1-3,
, 0.8-2.5 dm, slender to stout, glabrous
held well above ground
, sessile; blade
green to bluish green, strongly
to sparsely mottled
, mottling becoming obscure
with age, oval
, 4-10 × 2-8 cm, base
broadly attached, apex rounded-acuminate
to bluntly parallel sided-acuminate (rounded
basally to its broad
attachment). Flower erect
, odor pungent
, spicy; sepals displayed
above bracts, spreading
, green, variously streaked
with maroon, lanceolate-oblanceolate,
9-35 × 4-8 mm, margins
entire, apex rounded-acuminate; petals
long-lasting, erect, ± connivent, ± concealing stamens
and ovary, maroon, brownish maroon, green, or yellowish green, not
spirally twisted, oblanceolate
, occasionally almost orbicular
1.7-3.5 × 0.7-2 cm, thick-textured, narrowed near basal attachment
(but not truly clawed), margins entire, apex gradually rounded-tapered
to acute; stamens straight, 10-23 mm; filaments
red-purple, 2-5 mm,
erect, straight, gray-purple, 9-16 mm, thick,
purplish brown, straight, projecting
2-5+ mm beyond anther sacs
; ovary greenish white basally, purple
, 6-angled, pyramidally narrowed to stigmas,
4-8.5 mm; stigmas erect, divergent-recurved, distinct
, purple, subulate
1-5 mm, ± fleshy. Fruits baccate
, dark greenish purple, odorless,
subglobose, 6-angled, angles
somewhat winglike, pulpy, not juicy.
2n = 10. [source]
Trillium sessile is rather uniform throughout its range , with few color forms. [source]
Habit: Perennial .
Flowers: Maroon flowers. Blooms in spring . • Bloom Period: February, March, April, May. • Flower Color: maroon
Foliage: Summer foliage: Interesting mottled leaves.
Size: 6-12" tall.
Rich woodlands, limestone districts, calcareous soils, floodplains , riverbanks, clayey alluvium , less fertile soils, high, dry limestone woods , persists under light pasturing, in fencerows and brushy areas after lumbering; 100--300 m .
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Good, moist soil. • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 340 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Trillium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 58 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. albidum (Giant Trillium) · T. angustipetalum (Narrowpetal Wakerobin) · T. catesbaei (Bashful Wakerobin) · T. cernuum (Nodding Trillium) · T. chloropetalum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum (Torr.) Howell var. chloropetalum (Torr.) T.J.Howell (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum giganteum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum var. chloropetalum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum var. giganteum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. cuneatum (Little Sweet Betsy) · T. decipiens (Chattahoochee River Wakerobin) · T. decumbens (Trailing Trillium) · T. discolor (Mottled Wakerobin) · T. erectum (Red Erect Trillium) · T. erectum f. albiflorum (White Erect Trillium) · T. erectum var. japonicum (Stinking Benjamin) · T. flexipes (Bent Trillium) · T. foetidissimum (Mississippi River Wakerobin) · T. gracile (Sabine River Wakerobin) · T. grandiflorum (Great White Trillium) · T. grandiflorum f. polymerum 'Flore Pleno' (Double-Flowered American Wake-Robin) · T. grandiflorum Gothenburg pink strain (Great White Trillium) · T. grandiflorum 'Flore Pleno' (Trillium) · T. kamtschaticum (Trillium) · T. kurabayashi (Wake Robin) · T. kurabayashii (Giant Purple Wakerobin) · T. lancifolium (Lanceleaf Wakerobin) · T. ludovicianum (Louisiana Wakerobin) · T. luteum (Lemon Trillium) · T. maculatum (Spotted Wakerobin) · T. nivale (Dwarf White Wakerobin) · T. ovatum (Pacific Trillium) · T. ovatum oettingeri (Oettinger's Trillium) · T. ovatum 'Roy Elliott' (Western Trillium) · T. parviflorum (Smallflower Wakerobin) · T. persistens (Persistent Trillium) · T. petiolatum (Idaho Trillium) · T. pusillum (Dwarf Wakerobin) · T. pusillum var. ozarkanum (Ozark Wake-Robin) · T. pusillum var. pusillum (Dwarf Wakerobin) · T. pusillum var. virginianum (Virginia Wakerobin) · T. rectum (Stinking Benjamin) · T. recurvatum (Bloody Butcher) · T. reliquum (Confederate Wakerobin) · T. reliquum f. luteum (Relic Trillium) · T. rivale (Brook Wakerobin) · T. rugelii (Ill-Scented Wakerobin) · T. sessile (Common Toad Shade) · T. simile (Jeweled Wake Robin) · T. stamineum (Blue Ridge Wakerobin) · T. sulcatum (Barksdales Trillium) · T. texanum (Texas Trillium) · T. tschonoskii (Tschonoskis Wake Robin) · T. underwoodii (Lonbract Wakerobin) · T. undulatum (Painted Trillium) · T. vaseyi (Sweet Wakerobin) · T. viride (Wood Wakerobin) · T. viridescens (Tapertip Wakerobin)
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- Gray's school and field book of botany. Consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume. New York, American book company, 1901?, c1887 url p. 440.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 1165.
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- Illustrations of the natural orders of plants with groups and descriptions. Reduced from the original folio ed. London: Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1868. url , p. 424.
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- Iowa parks. Des Moines url p. 75.
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- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 116.
- List of herbaceous perennials tested in the arboretum and botanic garden: central experimental farm, Ottawa, Canada, with descriptions of flowers, and other notes by W. T. Macoun. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1908. url p. 105.
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- Manual of the Flora of Jackson County, Missouri, By Kenneth K. MacKenzie, assisted by B. F. Bush and others. Kansas City, Mo., s.n., 1902 url p. 62.
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- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 274.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 305.
- Meehan's monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany, and kindred subjects. Phila., PA: T. Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url , .
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- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 116.
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- Michigan flora. Prepared for the thirtieth annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, by W. J. Beal and C. F. Wheeler. Lansing: R. Smith & co., printers, 1892 url .
- Minnesota botanical studies. Minneapolis, Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. url .
- Miscellaneous publications / University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Ann Arbor, Mich.: The University, 1916- url p. 17.
- National list of scientific plant names. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982- url p. 418.
- New manual of botany. A handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, rearr. and extensively rev. by Benjamin Lincoln Robinson and Merritt Lyndon Fernald. New YorkAmerican Book Co.[c1908] url p. 293.
- North American wild flowers painted and lithographed by Agnes Fitz Gibbon; with botanical descriptions by C. P. Traill. S.l.: s.n., 1870? url p. 22, p. 30.
- Observations on the flowering plants, ferns and fern allies growing wild in Marquette County, Michigan, in 1916 and 1917, especially in the vicinity of the Huron Mountain Club. Ann Arbor, Michigan, Published by the University, 1918. url .
- Our early wild flowers: a study of the herbaceous plants blooming in early spring in the northern states / by Harriet L. Keeler. Illustrated by Mary Keffer and Eloise P. Luquer. New York: Scribner, 1916. url p. 39.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 1, p. 2, p. 281, p. 283, p. 3, p. 37, p. 41, p. 45, p. 53, p. 54, p. 62, p. 66, p. 73, p. 93.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 442, p. 443.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 443.
- Plant morphogenesis. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1960. url p. 463.
- Plants of Iowa; a preliminary list of the native and introduced plants of the state, not under cultivation; comp. by Wesley Greene, secretary. Des Moines, Bishard brothers, printers, 1907. url p. 151, p. 151.
- Practical guide to the wild flowers and fruits by George Lincoln Walton. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1909. url p. 108.
- Preliminary report of explorations in Nebraska and Dakota, in the years 1855-'56-'57, by Lieut. G.K. Warren, Topographical Engineers. .. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1875. url p. 122.
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- Proceedings. Salem, Mass.(1856-70) url p. 96.
- Productive farming; or, A familiar digest of the recent discoveries of Liebig, Johnston, Davy, and other celebrated writers on vegetable chemistry; showing how the results of tillage might be greatly augmented. By Joseph A. Smith. New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1843. url p. 381.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 199.
- Reliquiae Baldwinianae: selections from the correspondence of the late William Baldwin with occasional notes, and a short biographical memoir compiled by William Darlington. Philadelphia: Kimber and Sharpless, 1843. url p. 166, p. 173.
- Report intended to illustrate a map of the hydrographical basin of the upper Mississippi river / made by I.N. Nicollet, while in employ under the Bureau of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Washington: Blair and Rives, printers, 1843. url p. 161.
- Report of the Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, Office of the Regents, 1871-1888 url p. 29.
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- Rhynchophora or weevils of north eastern America, by W.S. Blatchley and C.W. Leng. .. Indianapolis, The Nature Publishing Company, 1916. url p. 393.
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- Sandusky flora. A catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns growing without cultivation, in Erie County, Ohio, and the peninsula and islands of Ottawa County, Wooster, O., Press of Clapper Printing Co., 1899. url .
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- South Carolina. Resources and population. Institutions and industries. Pub. by the State Board of Agriculture of South Carolina. Charleston, S.C.Walker, Evans & Cogswell, printers, 1883. url p. 345, p. 345.
- Southern wild flowers and trees, together with shrubs, vines and various forms of growth found through the mountains, the middle district and the low country of the South, by Alice Lounsberry, with plates, vignettes and diagrams by Mrs. E. Rowan, with an introduction by C. D. Beadle. New York, Stokes url p. 62.
- Special papers / Ohio Academy of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio: The Academy, 1899-1929. url p. 28.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 495, p. 498, p. 499.
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- Supplemental register of written communications published in the Transactions and Proceedings of the American philosophical society, 1881-1889. Comp. by Henry Phillips, jr., one of the secretaries of the society. Philadelphia, Press of MacCalla & co., 1889. url p. 117.
- The American botanist and florist, including lessons in the structure, life growth of plants, together with a simple analytical flora, descriptive of the native and cultivated plants growing in the Atlantic division of the American uni New York, Barnes[n.d.] url p. 340.
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- The American botanist: a monthly journal for the plant lover. Binghamton, N.Y.: Willard N. Clute & Co., 1901-1948. url p. 142, p. 48, p. 54, p. 65, p. 8.
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- The American gardener's calendar; adapted to the climates and seasons of the United States. Containing a complete account of all the work necessary to be done. .. for every month in the year; with ample practical directions for performing the same. .. By Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia, Printed by B. Graves, no. 40, North Fourth-Street, for the author, 1806. url p. 606.
- The American gardener's magazine and register of useful discoveries and improvements in horticulture and rural affairs. Boston: Printed for Russell, Shattuck & Williams, & Hovey & Co., 1835- url p. 331.
- The American journal of horticulture and florist's companion. Boston: J.E. Tilton and Co., 1867-1869. url p. 30.
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- The American journal of science. 11 1826 New Haven, Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University. url p. 179, p. 298, p. 311, p. 372, p. 70.
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- The California horticulturist and floral magazine. San Francisco, Calif.: F.A. Miller & Co., 1870- url p. 171.
- The Catholic yearbook: comprehending, the circle of the seasons and key to the calendar and almanac, or the natural history, religious festivals and miscellaneous customs of the whole year adapted for all succeeding years; [by Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster] London: Keating and Brown, 1833. url p. 109.
- The Edinburgh journal of science. v. 1-10, July 1824-Apr. 1829; new ser., v. 1-6, July 1829-Apr. 1832. EdinburghT. Clark [etc.] url p. 364.
- The English flower garden and home grounds; design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture, by W. Robinson. .. Illustrated with many engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1900. url p. 840.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 556, p. 862.
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- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota valley; a list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota river. Minneapolis[Harrison & Smith, State Printers]1892 url p. 157, p. 668, p. 669.
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- The Tennessee flora; with special reference to the flora of Nashville. Phaenogams and vascular cryptogams, by August Gattinger. Nashville, Tenn.The author, 1887. url p. 87.
- The Universal herbal; or, Botanical, medical, and agricultural dictionary; containing an account of all the known plants in the world, arranged according to the Linnean system. Specifying the uses to which they are or may be applied, whether as food, as medicine, or in the a London, Caxton Press url p. 869.
- The University of Missouri studies. Columbia, Mo.: The University, 1905- url p. 116, p. 42.
- The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage comprising an account of the plants collected by Messrs. Lay and Collie, and other officers of the expedition during the voyage to the Pacific and Bering's Strait, performed in His Majesty's Ship Blos London: H.G. Bohn, 1841. url .
- The broad-sclerophyll vegetation of California; an ecological study of the chaparral and its related communities. WashingtonCornegie Institution of Washington1922 url p. 40.
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- The flora of Franklin County [Indiana]. Richmond, 1885-1886 url p. 46.
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- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 60.
- The florist cultivator, or, Plain directions for the management of the principal florist flowers, shrubs, etc. etc.: adapted to the flower-garden, shrubbery, and greenhouse: with select lists of the finest roses, geraniums, carnations, pinks, auriculas, polyanthuses, tulips, dahlias, heartsease, &c &c.. .. / by Thomas Willats. London: J. Ridgeway, 1836. url p. 44.
- The garden month by month; describing the appearance, color, dates of bloom, height and cultivation of all desirable hardy herbaceous perennials for the formal or wild garden, with additional lists of aquatics, vi Garden City, N.Y., Garden City publishing company, inc.[c1907]. url .
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 340.
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- The geological and natural history survey of Minnesota: the twelfth annual report for the year 1883 / N.H. Winchell. Minneapolis: Johnson, Smith & Harrison, 1884. url p. 144.
- The new botanic garden, illustrated with one hundred and thirty-three plants, engraved by Sansom, from the original pictures, and coloured with the greatest exactness from drawings by Sydenham Edwards... London, J. Stockdale, 1812. url p. 475.
- The origin and evolution of life, on the theory of action, reaction and interaction of energy, by Henry Fairfield Osborn. .. with 136 illustrations. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1917. url p. 96.
- The plants of Michigan; simple keys for the identification of the native seed plants of the state, by Henry Allan Gleason. Ann Arbor, G. Wahr, c1918. url p. 12.
- The rhododendron and "American plants.": A treatise on the culture, propagation, and species of the rhododendron;: with cultural notes upon other plants which thrive under like treatment, and descriptions of species and varieties;: with a New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1876, [c1871] url .
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 3381.
- Torrey, J. Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey: made under the direction of the secretary of the Interior /by William H. Emory, major First Cavalry, and United States commissioner. Washington: C. Wendell, printer, 1857-59. url p. 217, p. 217.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 115, p. 116, p. 158, p. 180, p. 61, p. 83.
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- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 150, p. 26, p. 50.
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- Transactions of the. .. annual meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science. Topeka, Kan.: Kansas Pub. House, 1883-1901. url p. 162, p. 32.
- University of California publications in botany. Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1902-2001. url , , , , , , , , p. 10, p. 16, p. 42, p. 46, p. 49, p. 5, p. 59, p. 7, p. 75, p. 78, p. 86, p. 88.
- Vascular plants of the Sangamon River basin; annotated checklist and ecological summary [by] Almut G. Jones and David T. Bell. [Urbana], University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture,  url p. 53.
- W. Curtis (ed.) The Botanical magazine, or, Flower-garden displayed. .. /by William Curtis. 2 1788 [S.l.: s.n.], 1790-1800; url .
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662700
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-290621
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13754804
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:542602-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43088
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 542602-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TRSE2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 66865