Common Names in English:
Brook Wakerobin, Brook Wake-Robin, Wake Robin
; rhizomes subterranean
, horizontal or semierect, monopodial, unbranched or weakly branched, elongated to thick and fleshy
, compressed-shortened, distal end tapered to point
, apex bearing large terminal
cataphylls, and contractile, adventitious, ringed roots
. Scapes arising from terminal bud or axil of adjacent
(subterranean in T. petiolatum), erect
, straight (decumbent
, S-shaped in T. decumbens and T. reliquum). Bracts on mature
in whorl of 3, uniformly green or mottled
or sessile, venation
palmate-reticulate, with 3-5 major veins, ovate
. Inflorescences terminal, 1-flowered. Flowers: some totally to partially syncarpous
or sessile; sepals persistent
, 3, distinct
, green, maroon, or with maroon markings, foliaceous, oblong
, ovate, or lanceolate, alternating with bracts; petals shriveling after anthesis
, typically 3, erect, spreading
, or recurved, distinct, red, purple, pink, white, yellow, green, or combination
of these, ovate or obovate to linear
, sometimes clawed; stamens 6, alternating in 2 whorls of 3, erect, incurved
, or divergent; filaments
mostly short, basally expanded; anthers
2-locular, ± equaling or longer
than filaments, dehiscence extrorse
, or introrse
flat between (or in some species extending beyond) anther sacs
; ovary superior, proximal
portion 3-locular, 3- or 6-lobed, some axile
, some parietal
or a combination of both, distal portion forming stigmas; stigmas often persistent, 3, spreading, twisted, or erect, sometimes connate
, sessile or with very short style, linear to subulate
. Fruits capsular
, fleshy with obscure
sutures, not or rarely dehiscent
along sutures, each shed as unit
through abscission of thin-walled cells
. Seeds many, elliptic
, 2-4 mm, bearing white or yellowish, large, oily, myrmecochorous elaiosome (aril). x
= 5. 2n = 10 in all American species recorded.
Species 43: North America, Asia.
Trillium is traditionally divided into two subgenera , which overlap in some characters. Botanists consider subg. Trillium to be the more primitive group, because the genera considered closest to Trillium all have pedicellate flowers, as does subg. Trillium, except for one variety of T. pusillum that bears sessile to only barely pedicillate flowers.
There is not yet agreement among taxonomists about the relationships among the species within the genus. Certain ones, such as Trillium recurvatum and T. lancifolium, clearly are closely related, but the interrelationships of many others are not obvious. In the absence of definitive studies, the species are listed here alphabetically within subgenera. Several species of Trillium contain sapogenins that have been used medicinally as astringents, coagulants , expectorants , and uterine stimulants, hence the common names birthwort and Indian balm, and T. erectum, T. grandiflorum, and possibly other species have been utilized commercially as beth root (W. B . Zomlefer 1996). Fruits, seeds, and rhizomes of trilliums are generally considered to be poisonous. Deer, however, feed voraciously on T. grandiflorum plants, especially in early spring . Gardeners and wildflower enthusiasts, over most of the temperate zones of the world, consider trilliums to be among the most beautiful of wildflowers. Species of Trillium exhibit few and obscure structural differences, making key construction difficult (J. D. Freeman 1975).
Species Trillium rivale
Rhizomes horizontal, short, praemorse , fleshy . Scapes 1-2, round in cross section , 0.4-1.5 dm, slender, glabrous . Bracts distinctly petiolate ; blade bluish green, occasionally with silvery green pattern along major veins, ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-8 × 0.8-6 cm, somewhat thick-textured, glossy, weakly to strongly cordate basally, apex long-acuminate; petiole (0.5-) 1-3(-6) cm. Flower erect , rapidly recurving below bracts after pollination, ± odorless; sepals conspicuous , spreading , green, weakly sulcate , oblong or tapered apically, usually shorter and narrower than petals, 10-23 × 4-8 mm, margins entire, apex rounded-apiculate; petals erect-spreading, not recurved or only in distal 1/2, white (rarely pale pink), usually with dark madder-purple flecks, rarely almost entirely covered with madder-purple, color not changing with age, veins inconspicuous, not engraved, ovate-cordate to ± orbicular , tapered bluntly apically above middle , 1.3-2.8 × 1-2.4 cm, ± thin-textured, base rounded , cuneate, margins entire, mostly without undulations, apex ± apiculate-acuminate; stamens erect, 5-12 mm; filaments white, ± equaling anthers ; anthers straight, yellow, 3-6 mm, dehiscence ± extrorse ; connectives not extended beyond anther sacs ; ovary creamy white, ovoid , weakly 6-angled but angles in close pairs, giving superficial impression of 3-angled ovary, short, 3-9 × 4 mm, somewhat obscured by anthers broadly attached; stigmas recurved and appearing ± lobed adaxially, at least in dried specimens, connate basally to distinct and closely grouped, white or cream, 2-4 mm, uniformly thick, fleshy; pedicel strongly erect at anthesis , strongly recurving and elongating below bracts after pollination, 2.5-11 cm. Fruits greenish white, odorless, globose , 0.9-1.2 × 0.8-1 cm, pulpy, not juicy. 2n = 10. Flowering spring (early Mar--early Jun) ; withering in summer. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May, June. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: under 6" tall.
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : S.Watson Publication : Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts xx. (1885) 378.
Members of the genus Trillium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 58 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. albidum (Giant Trillium) · T. angustipetalum (Narrowpetal Wakerobin) · T. catesbaei (Bashful Wakerobin) · T. cernuum (Nodding Trillium) · T. chloropetalum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum (Torr.) Howell var. chloropetalum (Torr.) T.J.Howell (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum giganteum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum var. chloropetalum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. chloropetalum var. giganteum (Giant Wakerobin) · T. cuneatum (Little Sweet Betsy) · T. decipiens (Chattahoochee River Wakerobin) · T. decumbens (Trailing Trillium) · T. discolor (Mottled Wakerobin) · T. erectum (Red Erect Trillium) · T. erectum f. albiflorum (White Erect Trillium) · T. erectum var. japonicum (Stinking Benjamin) · T. flexipes (Bent Trillium) · T. foetidissimum (Mississippi River Wakerobin) · T. gracile (Sabine River Wakerobin) · T. grandiflorum (Great White Trillium) · T. grandiflorum f. polymerum 'Flore Pleno' (Double-Flowered American Wake-Robin) · T. grandiflorum Gothenburg pink strain (Great White Trillium) · T. grandiflorum 'Flore Pleno' (Trillium) · T. kamtschaticum (Trillium) · T. kurabayashi (Wake Robin) · T. kurabayashii (Giant Purple Wakerobin) · T. lancifolium (Lanceleaf Wakerobin) · T. ludovicianum (Louisiana Wakerobin) · T. luteum (Lemon Trillium) · T. maculatum (Spotted Wakerobin) · T. nivale (Dwarf White Wakerobin) · T. ovatum (Pacific Trillium) · T. ovatum oettingeri (Oettinger's Trillium) · T. ovatum 'Roy Elliott' (Western Trillium) · T. parviflorum (Smallflower Wakerobin) · T. persistens (Persistent Trillium) · T. petiolatum (Idaho Trillium) · T. pusillum (Dwarf Wakerobin) · T. pusillum var. ozarkanum (Ozark Wake-Robin) · T. pusillum var. pusillum (Dwarf Wakerobin) · T. pusillum var. virginianum (Virginia Wakerobin) · T. rectum (Stinking Benjamin) · T. recurvatum (Bloody Butcher) · T. reliquum (Confederate Wakerobin) · T. reliquum f. luteum (Relic Trillium) · T. rivale (Brook Wakerobin) · T. rugelii (Ill-Scented Wakerobin) · T. sessile (Common Toad Shade) · T. simile (Jeweled Wake Robin) · T. stamineum (Blue Ridge Wakerobin) · T. sulcatum (Barksdales Trillium) · T. texanum (Texas Trillium) · T. tschonoskii (Tschonoskis Wake Robin) · T. underwoodii (Lonbract Wakerobin) · T. undulatum (Painted Trillium) · T. vaseyi (Sweet Wakerobin) · T. viride (Wood Wakerobin) · T. viridescens (Tapertip Wakerobin)
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- A flora of northwest America: containing brief descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing without cultivation north of California, west of Utah, and south of British Columbia / by Thomas Howell. Vol. 1, Phanerogamae. Portland, Or.: [s.n.], 1903. url p. 661, p. 661.
- A popular California flora, or, Manual of botany for beginners: with illustrated introductory lessons especially adapted to the Pacific coast: to which is added an analytical key to West Coast botany, containing brief descript by Volney Rattan. San Francisco: Bancroft, 1887. url p. 123.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 450, p. 451.
- Bulb propagation and trade study WWF url p. 33.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1915 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 83.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 33 1906 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 393.
- California native plantsman: UC Berkeley Botanical Garden, Tilden Botanic Garden: with an introduction by Walter Knight; interviews conducted by Suzanne B. Riess in 1990. url p. 146.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , p. 150, p. 172, p. 180, p. 643.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , p. 224, p. 37, p. 41, p. 43.
- West Coast botany: an analytical key to the flora of the Pacific Coast in which are described over eighteen hundred species of flowering plants growing west of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade crests, from San Diego to Pug by Volney Rattan. San Francisco: Whitaker & Ray, 1898. url p. 188.
- Berg, R. Y. 1958. Seed dispersal, morphology, and phylogeny of Trillium. Skr. Norske Vidensk.-Akad. Oslo, Mat.-Natkurvidensk. Kl. 1958(1): 1-36.
- Case, F. W. and G. L. Burrows. 1962. The genus Trillium in Michigan: Some problems of distribution and taxonomy. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 47: 180-200.
- Case, F. W. and R. B. Case. 1997. Trilliums. Portland. Gates, R. R. 1917b. A systematic study of the North American genus Trillium, its variability and its relation to Paris and Medeola. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 43-92.
- Kato, H. et al. 1995. Evolutionary biology of Trillium and related genera (Trilliaceae). 1. Restriction site mapping and variation of chloroplast DNA and its systematic implications. Pl. Spec. Biol. 10: 7-30.
- Kazempour Osaloo, S., F. H. Utech, M. Ohara, and S. Kawano. 1999. Molecular systematics of Trilliaceae I. Phylogenetic analyses of Trillium using matK gene sequences. J. Pl. Res. 112: 35-49.
- Samejima, K. and J. Samejima. 1987. Trillium Genus Illustrated. Sapporo.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 28, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 3 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- "Trillium rivale". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 92, 93, 102, 103. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
- World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Release date: November 27, 2009
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums: University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Oregon State University: Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS: USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662698
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-290635
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:542597-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43086
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 542597-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TRRI2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 66862
- Frederick W. Case Jr. "Trillium". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 51, 54, 56, 90, 91, 97, 101, 110, 113, 150. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Trillium rivale". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 92, 93, 102, 103. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]