, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
Lianas woody, latex white. Leaves opposite. Cymes lax
, pseudoaxillary, or axillary
. Flowers white or purplish, 5merous. Calyx small, deeply divided
, basal glands
5-10, apex usually denticulate
. Corolla salverform
, 5-angled, dilated
sharply overlapping to right
. Stamens inserted
at lower third of corolla tube; anthers
, connivent, adherent
to pistil head
, anther tips included
or exserted, cells
; disc scales
. Ovaries 2, free, usually longer
than disc; ovules numerous
in each ovary. Style short; pistil head conical
. Follicles 2, linear
, divergent or parallel. Seeds linear-oblong, not beaked
, coma silky
white; endosperm copious
; cotyledons linear, flat, radicle short.
About 15 species: one in North America, the others in Asia; six species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Gentianales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Trachelospermum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. asiaticum (Ang Yo Asian Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Chirimen' (Chirimen Variegated Asiatic Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Hatuyukikazura' (Asian Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Ogon Nishiki' (Ogon Nishiki Japanese Star-Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Pink Showers' (Asiatic Jasmine 'pink Showers') · T. asiaticum 'Red Top' (Red Top Asiatic Jasmine Trachelospermum Asiaticum) · T. asiaticum 'Salsa' (Asian Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Variegata' (Asian Jasmine) · T. difforme (Climbing Dogbane) · T. jasminoides (Confederate Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Japonicum' (Confederate Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Madison' (Madison Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Star of Toscana' (Star Jasmine 'star of Toscana') · T. jasminoides 'Tricolor' (Confederate Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Variegata' (Variegated Star Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Variegatum' (Confederate Jasmine)
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- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 295.
- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 744.
- Plantae Wilsonianae; an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910, by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. Cambridge, University Press, 1913-17. url p. 334, p. 335, p. 337, p. 338, p. 339, p. 514, p. 516, p. 517, p. 543, p. 547, p. 554, p. 558, p. 578, p. 660.
- Sargent, C. S. Plantae Wilsonianae: an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910 /by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. 3 1917 Cambridge: The University press, 1913-17. url p. 334, p. 335, p. 336, p. 337, p. 338, p. 339, p. 514, p. 516, p. 543, p. 547, p. 554, p. 555, p. 558, p. 578, p. 660.
- The identification of trees & shrubs; how to recognize, without previous knowledge of botany, wild or garden trees and shrubs native to the north temperate zone, with 2, 500 diagrams made by the author. New York, Dutton url p. 251.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 6.
- Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles / by W. J. Bean. London: J. Murray, 1916. url p. 733.
- Trees and shrubs, hardy in the British isles. LondonJ. Murray1914 url p. 733.
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1673223
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15032106
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2965833
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Trachelospermum". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 166. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]