Common Names in English:
, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
Lianas woody, latex white. Leaves opposite. Cymes lax
, pseudoaxillary, or axillary
. Flowers white or purplish, 5merous. Calyx small, deeply divided
, basal glands
5-10, apex usually denticulate
. Corolla salverform
, 5-angled, dilated
sharply overlapping to right
. Stamens inserted
at lower third of corolla tube; anthers
, connivent, adherent
to pistil head
, anther tips included
or exserted, cells
; disc scales
. Ovaries 2, free, usually longer
than disc; ovules numerous
in each ovary. Style short; pistil head conical
. Follicles 2, linear
, divergent or parallel. Seeds linear-oblong, not beaked
, coma silky
white; endosperm copious
; cotyledons linear, flat, radicle short.
About 15 species: one in North America, the others in Asia; six species in China.
Habit: Vine , Subshrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May, June. • Flower Color: chartreuse, pale yellow, yellow-green
Size: 18-24" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 562 meters (0 to 1,844 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Gentianales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Trachelospermum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. asiaticum (Ang Yo Asian Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Chirimen' (Chirimen Variegated Asiatic Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Hatuyukikazura' (Asian Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Ogon Nishiki' (Ogon Nishiki Japanese Star-Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Pink Showers' (Asiatic Jasmine 'pink Showers') · T. asiaticum 'Red Top' (Red Top Asiatic Jasmine Trachelospermum Asiaticum) · T. asiaticum 'Salsa' (Asian Jasmine) · T. asiaticum 'Variegata' (Asian Jasmine) · T. difforme (Climbing Dogbane) · T. jasminoides (Confederate Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Japonicum' (Confederate Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Madison' (Madison Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Star of Toscana' (Star Jasmine 'star of Toscana') · T. jasminoides 'Tricolor' (Confederate Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Variegata' (Variegated Star Jasmine) · T. jasminoides 'Variegatum' (Confederate Jasmine)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A dictionary of American plant names, compiled by Willard N. Clute. Joliet, Ill., W. N. Clute, 1923. url p. 90.
- A provisional host-index of the fungi of the United States, by W. G. Farlow and A. B. Seymour. Cambridge, 1888-91. url p. 78.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 23.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 175, p. 333, p. 674.
- Annual report of the State Horticultural Society of Missouri. Jefferson City, Mo.: The Society, 1894- url p. 390.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 60 2000 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 126, p. 19.
- Biologia centrali-americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. London, Pub. for the editors by R. H. Porter and Dulau & co., 1879-88. url .
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 29 1938 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 163.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 2 1891-1894 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 263, p. 406, p. 538, p. 674.
- Economic botany of Alabama. University, Ala., 1913-1928. url p. 310.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 37.
- Fieldbook of Illinois wild flowers; six hundred fifty of the more common flowering plants in the state. Urbana, 1936. url p. 404, p. 404.
- Flood tolerance of plant species in bottomland forests of the southeastern United States / 1992. url p. 106, p. 115, p. 116, p. 118, p. 121, p. 122, p. 123, p. 124, p. 126, p. 127, p. 129, p. 130, p. 131, p. 132, p. 133, p. 136, p. 139, p. 163, p. 169, p. 174, p. 176, p. 179, p. 199, p. 28.
- Flora Peoriana; the vegetation in the climate of middle Illinois. Peoria, Ill., J. W. Franks & Sons, 1887. url , p. 70.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 208.
- Flora of Illinois, containing keys for the identification of the flowering plants and ferns, by George Neville Jones. .. Notre Dame, Ind., The University Press, 1945. url p. 206.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 761.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 771.
- Johnson's Gardeners' dictionary and cultural instructor. London, A. T. De La Mare printing and publishing co., ltd. url p. 316.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 81.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 263.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 739.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 1063.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 263.
- Nomenclature of plants; a text for the application by the case method of the International code of botanical nomenclature. New York, Ronald Press Co. url p. 155, p. 86.
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 674.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant life of Alabama: an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state / by Charles Mohr. Montgomery, Ala.: Brown Printing Co., 1901. url p. 674.
- Plantae Wilsonianae; an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910, by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. Cambridge, University Press, 1913-17. url p. 336, p. 660.
- Plants of Mississippi: a list of flowering plants and ferns / by E.N. Lowe. [Jackson, Miss.]: Mississippi State Geological Survey, 1921. url p. 227.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 203, p. 32.
- Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. Indianapolis, Ind.[s.n.] url p. 227.
- Sargent, C. S. Plantae Wilsonianae: an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910 /by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. 3 1917 Cambridge: The University press, 1913-17. url p. 336, p. 660.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 541.
- Synoptical flora of North America. New York, American Book Company, 1878-1895/97 [v.2, pt. 1, 1878] url p. 85, p. 85.
- Synoptical flora of North America: the Gamopetalæ, being a second edition of vol. I, part II, and vol. II, part I, collected. London, Iverson, Blakeman, Taylor, and Company;1886. url .
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 138.
- The trees, shrubs and vines of Missouri. url , .
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 222, p. 257, p. 290.
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2653370
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-30230
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13744327
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:82543-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 451616
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30230
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TRDI
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 66380
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Trachelospermum". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 166. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 96.020 meters (315.026 feet), Standard Deviation = 77.540 based on 389 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]