or sometimes perennial
throughout. Stem erect
, much branched, ridged
, leafy throughout. Leaf blade
1 2-pinnate or pinnately decompound
segments lanceolate to oblong
, densely toothed
to deeply lobed
, both surfaces strigose
with appressed hairs. Umbels loosely compound
or capitate, terminal
; bracts few or absent; rays 2 12, spreading-ascending, or umbellules sessile; bracteoles 2 8, linear
. Calyx teeth small, triangular to acute-lanceolate. Petals white or purplish red, obovate
, with a narrow inflexed
apex, appressed-strigose on abaxial
thick, conic; styles short. Fruit round-ovoid or oblong, flattened laterally; primary ribs
, lateral ribs displaced onto the commissural
surface; secondary ribs
hidden by dense, upwardly hooked
spines (Chinese taxa) which occupy the entire interval; vittae 1 under the secondary ribs, 2 on commissure
. Seed flattened dorsally
. Carpophore bifid at apex, cleft
for 1/3 1/2 of its length
About 20 species: Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America, Pacific Islands (New Zealand) ; two species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Apiales () - Nakai, 1930
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Torilis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. arvensis (Canada Hedgeparsley) · T. arvensis arvensis (Hedgeparsley) · T. arvensis purpurea (Hedgeparsley) · T. japonica (Erect Hedgeparsley) · T. leptophylla (Bristlefruit Hedgeparsley) · T. nodosa (Knotted Hedge-Parsley) · T. scabra (Rough Hedgeparsley)
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- The history of Glanville's Wootton, in the County of dorset, including its zoology and botany / by C.W. Dale. London, Hatchards, 1878. url p. 352.
- The life of John Duncan Scotch weaver and botanist: with sketches of his friends and notices of the times / by William Jolly. London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Co., 1883. url p. 509.
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5429818
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:849501-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 897891