Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Spanish Moss, Black-Moss, Long-Moss, Spanish-Moss
Common Names in French:
Barbe Grise, Fille De L´air, Mousse, Mousse Espagnole
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Barba-De-Velho, Camambaya, Samambaia
Common Names in Spanish:
Herbs or rarely shrubs
, epiphytic, lithophytic, or terrestrial
. Leaves spirally arranged
, usually rosulate, sessile, simple
, veins parallel, base
serrate or sometimes entire. Inflorescence terminal
or sessile, a panicle, raceme
, spike, or head
, sometimes reduced to solitary, pseudolateral flowers; bracts usually brightly colored
. Flowers bisexual
or sometimes functionally unisexual
, 3-merous. Sepals and petals each 3, distinct
or basally connate
; petals often brightly colored, basal margin with a pair of scalelike appendages
. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls of 3; filaments
free, connate, or collectively or individually adnate
to petals; anthers
2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal
slits. Gynoecium of 3 carpels united
to form a compound
, 3-loculed, superior or very often partly or wholly inferior ovary
; ovules few to usually Â± numerous
in each locule; placentation axile
. Style terminal and often 3-parted; stigmas papillose
. Fruit a berry or less often a septicidal
capsule, or seldom compound and fleshy
. Seeds usually winged
; endosperm mealy
; embryo small to fairly large.
About 50 genera and 2000--2600 species: mainly tropical America, except for Pitcairnia feliciana (A. Chevalier) Harms & Mildbraed in tropical W Africa; one species (introduced ) in China.
Herbs, usually epiphytic, stemless to long caulescent
. Leaves mostly many-ranked, rosulate, or occasionally 2-ranked and / or laxly arranged; blade
to triangular or ligulate
. Inflorescences central, 1--many-flowered, 2-ranked; floral
bracts mostly broad, conspicuous, rachis covered or exposed at anthesis
. Flowers bisexual
; sepals distinct
, usually symmetric
; petals distinct; stamens included
or exserted, filaments
; ovary superior. Capsules cylindric
. Seeds with basal, white, plumose
Species ca. 550 (13 species and 2 described natural hybrids in the flora ) : widespread in the Neotropics.
Species Tillandsia usneoides
Plants pendent in long festoons, flowering to 300 cm. Stems elongate . Leaves 4--8, 2-ranked, often twisted or contorted, gray to silver-gray, 1.5--3 ´ 0.1--0.2 cm, densely grayish-scaly; sheath pale , narrowly elliptic , not inflated , not forming pseudobulb , 0.2--0.4 cm wide; blade filiform , succulent, margins involute to nearly tubular , apex acute. Inflorescences: scape concealed within leaf sheath, appearing scapeless, pendent with shoot , ± 1 mm diam. Floral bracts enveloping flower, erect , green, broad (covering all or most of rachis, rachis not visible at anthesis ), ovate , not keeled , 0.4--0.5 cm, thin-leathery, apex acute, surfaces densely grayish-scaly, venation even to slight. Flowers 1, inconspicuous, apparently sessile; sepals free , ovate, not keeled, 0.6--0.7 cm, thin, veined, apex acute, surfaces glabrous ; corolla spreading , petals spreading, yellow-green, elliptic, to 1 cm; stamens included ; stigma included, simple-erect. Fruits to 2.5 cm. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July. • Flower Color: chartreuseyellow-green, inconspicuous, none
Size: 8-10' tall.
Epiphytic, occasionally on fences, telephone lines ; 0--300 m (Ref. 87274).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,653 meters (0 to 15,266 feet).
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Bromelianae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Dendropogon usneoides (Linnaeus) Rafinesque • Renealmia usneoides Linnaeus • Strepsia usneoides (L.) Nutt. Ex Steud.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Tillandsia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 59 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. aeranthos (Air Plant) · T. albertiana x stricta (Air Plant) · T. araujei (Air Plant) · T. ariza-juliae (Dominican Airplant) · T. baileyi (Reflexed Airplant) · T. balbisiana (Balbis Air Plant) · T. bartramii (Bartram's Airplant) · T. bergeri (Air Plant) · T. brachycaulos (Airplant) · T. brachycaulos x caput-medusae (Medusa´s Head) · T. brachycaulos x schiedeana (Giant Air Plant) · T. bulbosa (Air Plant) · T. bulbosa 'Giant Belize Form' (Air Plant) · T. cacticola (Tillandsia) · T. cyanea 'Josée' (Pink Quill 'jos) · T. cyanea 'Pink Quill' (Air Plant) · T. dyeriana (Tillandsia) · T. fasciculata (Cardinal Air Plant) · T. fasciculata Sw. var. clavispica Mez (Giant Airplant) · T. fasciculata var. clavispica (Giant Airplant) · T. fasciculata var. densispica (Giant Airplant) · T. fasciculata var. fasciculata (Giant Airplant) · T. fasciculata var. venosispica (Giant Airplant) · T. festucoides (Fescue Airplant) · T. flexuosa (Banded Wild-Pine) · T. floridana (Florida Airplant) · T. fuchsii var. gracilis (Air Plant) · T. funebris (Air Plant) · T. funkiana (Air Plant) · T. insularis (Spanish Moss) · T. ionantha (Blushing Bride) · T. ionantha 'Druid' (Air Plant) · T. ionantha 'Peach' (Air Plant) · T. leonamiana (Air Plant) · T. lindenii (Linden's Airplant) · T. lineatispica (Pinon) · T. lingulata (Droophead Tufted Airplant) · T. neglecta (Air Plant) · T. nidus 'T. Ionantha X T. Fascicula' (Air Plant) · T. nitida (Caribbean Strap Airplant) · T. paucifolia (Potbelly Airplant) · T. plumosa (Air Plant) · T. pruinosa (Fuzzy Wuzzy Air Plant) · T. recurvata (Ball Moss) · T. ringens (Pirigallo) · T. sessiliflora (Sessileleaf Strap Airplant) · T. setacea (Needle-Leaf Airplant) · T. smalliana (Small's Airplant) · T. stricta (Air Plant) · T. stricta 'Hard Leaf' (Tillandsia) · T. tenuifolia (Air Plant) · T. tricholepis (Air Moss) · T. tricholepsis (Air Plant) · T. usneoides (Spanish Moss) · T. utriculata (Giant Air Plant) · T. variabilis (Leatherleaf Airplant) · T. x (Florida Airplant) · T. xerographica (Tillandsia) · T. x rectifolia (Tillandsia)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Instituto de Botanica
- SysTax, SysTax
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662156
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-269929
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13754417
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:97679-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 310398
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 42371
- MoBot NameID: 4300586
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: REUS
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 34728
- Wei-liang Ma & Bruce Bartholomew "Bromeliaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 18. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Harry E. Luther,Gregory K. Brown "Tillandsia". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 387.900 meters (1,272.638 feet), Standard Deviation = 846.340 based on 549 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]