, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
deciduous. Leaves alternate; stipule caducous
; leaf blade
usually slightly oblique
, cordate, truncate
, or rounded
usually serrate or sometimes entire, often with hairy
domatia in axils of veins. Inflorescences axillary
, 3- to many-flowered. Bracts adnate
to inflorescence peduncle, band-shaped, large, persistent
. Flowers bisexual
. Sepals 5, with adaxial
at base. Petals 5, white or yellow, imbricate. Stamens many, free
into 5 fascicles; anthers
; staminodes when present petaloid
, tightly enclosing style and stigma, alternating with petals. Ovary 5-loculed, ovoid
, usually hairy after anthesis
; ovules 2 per locule; style glabrous; stigma apparent, 5-lobed. Fruit a nut or capsule, globose
, or ovoid, pericarp usually hairy, mostly woody or fragile and indehiscent, rarely leathery and dehiscent
when dry. Seeds 1 or 2.
Between 23 and 40 species: primarily in temperate and subtropical regions; 19 species (15 endemic) in China.
Tilia is very distinct by its unique bracts adnate to the peduncle of the inflorescence. It is in the process of being monographed by C. D. Pigot, who has studied many populations in China, but this work is not yet available. An initial publication (Pigott, Edinburgh J. Bot. 59: 239-246. 2002) indicated that he intends to accept only 23 species in total, 13 of these occurring in China, and he intends to include many of the more recently described Chinese species within the very variable Tilia tuan. Chromosome numbers were given for all those taxa that he accepts. Tang and Zhuge (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34: 254-264. 1996) recognized 14 "good" species in China, 17 in E Asia, and 25 in total, but Tang noted that more study for a taxonomic revision is needed.
Modern molecular analyses indicate that Tilia and Craigia form a very distinct lineage that could be treated as a distinct family or subfamily restricted to just these two genera plus the poorly known Central American genus Mortoniodendron Standley & Steyermark.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Desf. Publication : Tabl. ?cole Bot. 152 1804
Members of the genus Tilia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 60 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. americana (American Basswood) · T. americana var. americana (American Basswood) · T. americana var. caroliniana (Beetree) · T. americana var. heterophylla (Bee-Tree Linden) · T. americana 'American Sentry' (American Basswood) · T. americana 'Bailyard' (Frontyard® Linden) · T. americana 'Boulevard' (American Basswood) · T. americana 'Fastigiata' (American Basswood) · T. americana 'Frontyard' (American Basswood) · T. americana 'Legend' (American Basswood) · T. americana 'Lincoln' (American Basswood) · T. americana 'Redmond' (Redmond American Linden) · T. americana 'Wandell' (Wandell Legend Linden) · T. amurensis (Amur Linden) · T. chingiana (Tilia) · T. cordata (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Baileyi' (Shamrock® Linden) · T. cordata 'Bicentennial' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Chancellor' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Chancole' (Chancellor® Linden) · T. cordata 'Corinthian' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Corzam' (Corinthian® Linden) · T. cordata 'Degroot' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Fairview' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Firecracker' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Glenleven' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Golden Cascade' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Greenspire' (Greenspire Little Leaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Green Globe' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Handsworth' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'June Bride' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Morden' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Norlin' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Olympic' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Pendula Nana' (Weeping Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Prestige' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Rancho' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Salem' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Shamrock' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Swedish Upright' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Turesi' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. cordata 'Winter Orange' (Littleleaf Linden) · T. europaea (European Linden) · T. henryana (Henrys Lime) · T. kiusiana (Japanese Lime Tree) · T. mandshurica (Manchurian Lime) · T. mongolica (Mongolian Lime) · T. oliveri (Olivers Linden) · (Pendant Silver Linden) · (Bigleaf Linden) · T. platyphyllos platyphyllos (Broad-Leaved Lime) · T. platyphyllos 'Laciniata' (Bigleaf Linden) · T. platyphyllos 'Rubra' (Bigleaf Linden) · T. platyphyllos 'Tortuosa' (Bigleaf Linden) · T. tomentosa 'Satin Shadow' (Silver Linden) · T. tomentosa 'Sterling' (Silver Linden) · T. vulgaris (Common Linden) · T. x europaea (Common Lime Tree) · T. x europaea 'Wratislaviensis' (Common Lime Tree) · T. × vulgaris (Common Linden)
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- Feng Kuo-mei. 1984. Malvaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 1-102.
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10812614
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15884773
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:835601-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 835601-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1426391
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Malvaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 264,299, 302. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Tilia". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]