Common Names in English:
Foam Flower, One-Leaved Foamflower, Three-Leaved Foamflower, Threeleaf Foamflower
Herbs or shrubs
, rarely trees
. Leaves simple
, usually alternate or opposite, usually exstipulate
. Flowers usually in cymes, panicles, or racemes
, rarely solitary, usually bisexual
, rarely unisexual
, hypogynous or ± epigynous
, rarely perigynous, usually biperianthial, rarely monochlamydeous
, rarely zygomorphic, 4- or 5(-10) -merous. Sepals sometimes petal-like. Petals usually free
, sometimes absent. Stamens (4 or) 5-10 or many; filaments
2-loculed; staminodes often present. Carpels 2, rarely 3-5(-10), usually ± connate
; ovary superior or semi-inferior to inferior, 2- or 3-5(-10) -loculed with axile placentation
, or 1-loculed with parietal placentation
, rarely with apical placentation; ovules usually many, 2- to many seriate
, sometimes with transitional forms; integument 1- or 2-seriate; styles free or ± connate. Fruit a capsule or berry, rarely a follicle or drupe. Seeds albuminous
, rarely not so; albumen of cellular
type, rarely of nuclear
type; embryo small.
About 80 genera and 1200 species: worldwide; 29 genera (two endemic), and 545 species (354 endemic, seven introduced ) in China.
During the past several years, cladistic analyses of morphological, chemical, and DNA data have made it clear that the recognition of the Saxifragaceae sensu lato (Engler, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 18a: 74-226. 1928) is untenable. Among the angiosperm families, Saxifragaceae sensu lato may in fact represent the most extreme example of a polyphyletic assemblage . For example, recent analyses of DNA sequence data indicate that these taxa represent at least ten separate evolutionary lines , many of which are only distantly related to one another (Morgan & Soltis, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 631-660. 1993; Soltis & Soltis, Amer. J. Bot. 84: 504-522. 1997) . Furthermore, very large molecular phylogenetic analyses of hundreds of angiosperms indicate that these separate lineages are distributed among four of the six traditionally recognized subclasses of dicotyledons (Savolainen et al. , Syst. Biol. 49: 306-362. 2000; Soltis et al., Nature 402: 402-404. 1999) . These recent studies have also greatly clarified how this phylogenetically diverse assemblage should be divided into families and treated taxonomically (see The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG), Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 531-553. 1998) . Recent studies of DNA sequence data have clarified both the circumscription and affinities of a narrowly defined Saxifragaceae (Saxifragaceae sensu stricto) and Hydrangeaceae (Soltis et al., Amer. J. Bot. 82: 504-514. 1995; Savolainen et al., loc. cit. ; Soltis et al., loc. cit. 1999) . Saxifragaceae sensu stricto should consist only of Saxifragoideae, a group of about 30 herbaceous genera. Members of Saxifragaceae sensu stricto from the Chinese flora include Astilbe, Astilboides, Bergenia, Chrysosplenium, Mitella, Mukdenia, Oresitrophe, Rodgersia, Saxifraga, Tanakaea, Tiarella, and the recently described Saniculiphyllum. Close relatives of Saxifragaceae sensu stricto include Itea, Penthorum, and Ribes. These genera, the sole members of Iteoideae, Penthoroideae, and Ribesioideae, respectively, are also best treated in separate families: Iteaceae, Penthoraceae, and Grossulariaceae (see APG, loc. cit.) . These taxa, as well as several others, such as Crassulaceae, are basal to a large assemblage of taxa, most of which were traditionally placed in Rosidae . Sequence data also indicate that Parnassia (the sole member of the Parnassioideae) is a more derived member of the rosid alliance , most closely related to Brexia and Lepuropetalon (also part of Saxifragaceae sensu lato) and Celastraceae. Parnassia and Lepuropetalon should be placed in Parnassiaceae with Brexia part of an expanded Celastraceae (APG, loc. cit.) .
Both morphological and molecular data indicate that Hydrangeoideae and Escallonioideae are, in contrast, allied with taxa traditionally placed in Asteridae. Hydrangeoideae are a well-defined, monophyletic lineage that should be treated as Hydrangeaceae. In China they include Cardiandra, Decumaria, Deinanthe, Deutzia, Dichroa, Hydrangea, Kirengeshoma, Philadelphus, Pileostegia, Platycrater, and Schizophragma, and are closely allied with families such as Cornaceae, Loasaceae, and Nyssaceae. Escallonioideae appear to be polyphyletic, and this group of approximately 14 genera is in need of thorough study. Members of this subfamily are allied with several different lineages of higher asterids. Polyosma, the only member of Escallonioideae in China, appears closely allied with Caprifoliaceae (Xiang & Soltis in Boufford & Ohba, Sino-Japanese Flora: its Characteristics and Diversification, 1998) .
. Rhizome short, slender. Leaves mainly basal, cauline ones few, small; stipules small; leaf blade
and trilobed or subtrifoliolate. Inflorescence a raceme
or panicle, simple or sparsely branched; bracts small. Flowers small; hypanthium adnate
to ovary at base
. Sepals 5, usually petaloid
. Petals 5, sometimes absent. Stamens 10, visible above corolla. Carpels 2, connate
basally; ovary 1-loculed; placentation parietal
; styles 2, slender, elongate
. Fruit a capsule; carpels unequal, one ca.
1/2 as long as the other. Seeds few, black, small, smooth
Three species: one in China, the Himalayas, and Japan and one each in E and W North America: one species in China.
The two North American species are more closely related to each other than to either of the Asian species.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Slightly hairy heart-shaped leaves.
Size: 6-12" tall.
Landscape Uses: Groundcover. Woodland gardens. • Care: Requires moderately fertile soil.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,174 meters (0 to 7,133 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Prefers rich, moist organic soil. Prefers a pH of 5.6-6.8. • Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.
Moisture: Water Requirements: Water regularly, but do not overwater. Dry slightly between waterings.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Reveal, 1994
- Order: Saxifragales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Saxifraganae () - Reveal, 1994
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : James Publication : Cat. 181; ex S. Wats. Bibliog. Ind. Bot. N. Am. 325
Members of the genus Tiarella
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 54 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. cordifolia (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia collina (Heartleaf Foamflower) · T. cordifolia var. austrina (Heartleaf Foamflower) · T. cordifolia var. collina (Heartleaf Foamflower) · T. cordifolia var. collina'Oakleaf' (Foam Flower) · T. cordifolia var. cordifolia (Heartleaf Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Brandywine' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Dark Eyes' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Eco Rambling Silhouette' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Eco Red Heart' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Elizabeth Oliver' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Jeepers Creepers' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Rambling Tapestry' (Rambling Tapestry Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Running Tapestry' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Slickrock' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia'Spring Symphony' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. cordifolia 'Tiger Stripe' (Allegheny Foamflower) · T. polyphylla (Foam Flower) · T. trifoliata (Foam Flower) · T. trifoliata unifoliata (Threeleaf Foamflower) · T. trifoliata var. laciniata (Threeleaf Foamflower) · T. trifoliata var. trifoliata (Threeleaf Foamflower) · T. trifoliata var. unifoliata (Oneleaf Foamflower) · T. wherryi 'Heronswood Mist' (Heronswood Mist Foam Flower) · T. x 'Neon Lights' (Neon Lights Foam Flower) · T. x 'Pink Skyrocket' (Pink Skyrocket Foam Flower) · T. 'Black Snowflake' (Foamflower) · T. 'Black Velvet' (Foamflower) · T. 'Brandywine' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Butterfly Wings' (Butterfly Wings Foam Flower) · T. 'Candy Striper' (Foamflower) · T. 'Crow Feather' (Foamflower) · T. 'Cygnet' (Foamflower) · T. 'Dark Star' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Dunvegan' (Foam Flower) · T. 'George Shenk Pink' (Foamflower) · T. 'Heronswood Mist' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Inkblot' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Iron Butterfly' (Foamflower) · T. 'Mint Chocolate' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Neon Lights' (Foamflower) · T. 'Ninja' (Foamflower) · T. 'Pink Bouquet' (Foamflower) · T. 'Pink Brushes' (Foamflower) · T. 'Pink Pearls' (Foamflower) · T. 'Pink Skyrocket' (Foamflower) · T. 'Pirate's Patch' (Pirate's Patch Foamflower) · T. 'Running Tiger' (Running Tiger Foam Flower) · T. 'Sea Foam' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Spanish Cross' (Spanish Cross Foamflower) · T. 'Starfish' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Stargazer Mercury' (Foamflower) · T. 'Stargazer Venus' (Foam Flower) · T. 'Sugar and Spice' (Foam Flower)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 28, 2007:
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- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
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- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2649812
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-24531
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:794903-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 448018
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 24531
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 794902-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: TITRU
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 66016
- Jin-tang Pan, Cuizhi Gu, Shumei Huang, Chao-fen Wei, Shu-ying Jin, Lingdi Lu, Shinobu Akiyama, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, James Cullen, Richard J. Gornall, Ulla-Maj Hultgård, Hideaki Ohba & Douglas E. Soltis "Saxifragaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 269. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Pan Jintang, Douglas E. Soltis "Tiarella". in Flora of China Vol. 8 Page 344. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 720.830 meters (2,364.928 feet), Standard Deviation = 636.110 based on 505 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]