- Thuja plicata is an important timber tree . Its soft but extremely durable wood is valued for home construction, production of shakes and shingles, and many other uses. Native Americans of the Northwest Coast used it to build lodges , totem poles , and seagoing canoes . Many cultivars are grown for ornament, and the species is managed for timber in Europe and New Zealand. [source]
- Western redcedar is the provincial tree of British Columbia. [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Giant Arborvitae, Canoe-Cedar, Giant-Cedar, Pacific Red-Cedar, Shinglewood, Western Arborvitae, Western Red Cedar, Western Red-Cedar, Western Redcedar
Common Names in French:
Thuya De Lobb, Thuya Géant
, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, scalelike and then often dimorphic
with flattened facial leaves and keeled
leaves, or needlelike particularly in juvenile plants
, often with an abaxial
. Pollen cones terminal
, solitary, maturing and shed annually; microsporophylls
6-16, decussate or whorled
, each bearing (2 or) 3-6(-9) pollen sacs
; pollen wingless. Seed cones usually terminal, solitary, globose
, or oblong
or indehiscent when mature
in 1st or 2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free
only at apex; ovules 1-numerous per bract axil, erect
; cone scales of mature cones 3-16, flat or peltate, woody, leathery, or succulent, 1-20-seeded. Seeds winged
or not; wings
derived from seed coat
. Cotyledons usually 2, rarely 3-6. Germination epigeal.
Nineteen genera and ca. 125 species: worldwide; eight genera (one introduced ) and 46 species (16 endemic, 13 introduced) in China.
, small to large. Branchlets
flattened, in fan-shaped, flattened, frondlike sprays
. Leaves opposite in 4 ranks
leaves heteromorphic; those on larger branchlets with sharp, erect
apices to ca.
2 mm; those on flattened lateral
branchlets crowded, appressed
, scalelike, lateral pairs keeled
, facial pairs flat; abaxial
present or absent. Pollen cones with 2--6 pairs of sporophylls, each sporophyll with 2--4 pollen sacs
. Seed cones maturing and opening first year, ellipsoid
, (6--) 9--14(--18) mm; scales
, 4--6 pairs, overlapping, oblong
, thin and woody, 2--3 central pairs fertile
, uniformly thin or with slightly enlarged apex, remaining scales sterile. Seeds 1--3 per scale, lenticular
, equally 2-winged; cotyledons 2. x
Species 5: North America, e Asia.
Species Thuja plicata
Trees to 50(--75) m , sometimes stunted in harsh environments; trunk to 2(--5) m diam., often buttressed at base ; crown conical . Bark reddish brown or grayish brown, 10--25 mm thick, fibrous , fissured . Branches arching , branchlets pendent. Leaves of branchlets (1--) 3--6 mm (sprays sometimes bearing only very small leaves), apex acute, with white markings on abaxial surface when fresh, glossy green on adaxial surface of branchlets. Pollen cones 1--3 mm, reddish. Seed cones ellipsoid , 10--14 mm, brown; fertile scales 2--3 pairs, each with evident, nearly terminal , deltate projection. Seeds 8--14 per cone, 4--7.5 mm (including wings ), reddish brown. 2 n = 22. [source]
ID Features: Fern-like branches. Conical shape. Dense, compact evergreen foliage. Scale-like leaves. Tansy-like odor emitted from crushed foliage. Small woody cone. Buttressed base.
Habit: An evergreen tree with a pyramidal shape and foliage to the ground . • Growth Form: Single Stem • Shape and Orientation: Conical
Flowers: Not of any ornamental significance. Monoecious. At the branch tips . Borne singly. • Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 414400 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit: Small erect cones with thin, overlapping scales . Ovoid . Green maturing to brown to tan. 0.5" long. Not particularly noticeable except when then is heavy cone set. Winged seeds. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Long-pointed scale like new leaves. Resin gland on scales . Older leaves are blunt with no gland and overlapping. Glossy dark green. Crushed foliage emits a distinct tansy-like odor. • Fall foliage: Foliage discolors to yellowish-green and even somewhat brown at times. Winter color is considered ugly by sone and cultivars have been selected. for green winter foliage color. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Dense • Foliage Texture: Fine • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow-moderate. • Mature Height (feet): 150.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 40 • Size: 50' to 70' tall, up to 25' wide. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: For hedges . For screens . Windbreaks. Specimen. Foundation plant (small cultivar). Cultivar selected for green winter foliage should be used in place of. species. • Liabilities: Leaf miner. Bag worms. Foliar burn in very harsh sites. Spider mites . Heavy snow often causes damage. A favorite food of deer.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,875 meters (0 to 9,432 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Easily transplanted from containers and B&B. Likes moist air . Prefers moist, deep, loamy soil. Tolerant of acidic and alkaline soils . Generally quite adaptable and tolerant once established . Can be sheared to maintain shape and size. Full sun ; partial shade is tolerated but plants become thin, open and much. less appealing. Tolerant of somewhat wet soils.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.1 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 120 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -33 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 180 • Cold Hardiness: 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Burnett
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Thuja gigantea Nutt.
Members of the genus Thuja
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 57 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. koraiensis (Korean Arbor-Vitae) · T. koraiensis 'Glauca Prostrata' (Korean Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Emerald' (Emerald Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis filiformis (Weeping Threadleaf Eastern Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis f. pendula (Weeping American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis var. nigra (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Sunkist' (Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis var. pyramidalis (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis var. Smaragd (Emerald Green Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Brandon' (Brandon's Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Danica' (Danica Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Degroot's Spire' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Elegantissima' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Emerald Green' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Emerald Variegated' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Golden Globe' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Golden Tuffet' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Gracilis' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Hetz Midget' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Hill's Dark Green' (Hill's Dark Green Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Holmstrup' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Janed Gold' (White Cedar 'janed Gold') · T. occidentalis 'Little Giant' (Little Giant Dwarf Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Lutea' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Masonic' (Masonic Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Rheingold' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Snow Tip' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Spiralis' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Techny' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Teddy' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Tiny Tim' (Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Wansdyke Silver' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Wareana Lutescens' (American Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Waterfield' (White Cedar 'waterfield') · T. occidentalis 'Woodwardii' (Globe Arborvitae) · T. occidentalis 'Yellow Ribbon' (American Arborvitae) · T. orientalis 'Aurea Nana' (Dwarf Golden Arborvitae) · T. orientalis 'Blue Cone' (Blue Cone Arborvitae) · T. orientalis 'Miller's Gold' (Chinese Arborvitae) · T. orientalis 'Westmont' (Westmont Arborvitae) · T. plicata (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Atrovirens' (Atrovirens Western Red Cedar) · T. plicata 'Collyer's Gold' (Collyer's Gold Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Fastigiata' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Filiformis' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'George Washington' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Green Giant' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Martin' (Western Red Cedar 'martin') · T. plicata 'Spring Grove' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Stoneham Gold' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Sunshine' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Virescens' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Whipcord' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. plicata 'Zebrina' (Giant Arborvitae) · T. standishii (Japanese Arborvitae) · T. x 'Steeplechase' (Steeplechase Arborvitae)
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- Farjon, A. 11-Jan-2006 (from Conifer Database, Jun 2006).
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 22, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 41 providers.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- "Thuja plicata". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (May 01, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Forest Research Institute, Department of Natural Forests, Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbario SANT, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SANT herbarium vascular plant collection
- Institute of Dendrology PAS, Institute of Dendrology PAS, Flora of Sudety Mountains
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS, National System of Proetcted Areas
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645039
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Con-3876
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 1043097
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:263964-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 36593
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18044
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 263964-1
- IUCN ID: 246349
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PGCUP06030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: THPL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 65974
- Liguo Fu, Yong-fu Yu, Robert P. Adams & Aljos Farjon "Cupressaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 62. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Kenton L. Chambers "Thuja". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Thuja plicata". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 161.660 meters (530.381 feet), Standard Deviation = 269.610 based on 2,173 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]