, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
. Leaves alternate, large and entire. Inflorescence 1-flowered or cymose
, usually on trunk
or major branches. Flowers bisexual
, small and perfect
. Calyx 5-lobed, divided
nearly to base
. Petals 5, lower part deeply concave
part becoming narrow, upper spatulate
. Stamens in 5 groups of 1-3, alternate with staminodes; filaments
at base into tube
; staminodes 5. Ovary sessile, 5-celled; ovules many per locule; stigma 5-lobed. Fruit large, drupaceous
. Seeds many, embedded
in pulp; cotyledons fleshy
; endosperm absent.
About 22 species: tropical America; one species (introduced ) in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Malvales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Theobroma
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 15 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. angustifolium (Theobroma) · T. bicolor (Theobroma) · T. cacao (Cacao) · T. cacao amelonado type (Amelonado Cocoa) · T. cacao cacao (Cacao) · T. cacao sphaerocarpum (Cacao) · T. cacao subsp. sphaerocarpum (Cacao) · T. grandiflorum (Copoasu) · T. mammosum (Theobroma) · T. microcarpum (Wild Cacao) · T. purpureum (Wild Cocoa) · T. simiarum (Theobroma) · T. speciosum (Monkey Cocoa) · T. sphaerocarpum sphaerocarpum (Cacao) · T. subincanum (Wild Cacao)
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- A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, by J. C. Willis. CambridgeThe University Press, 1919 url p. 646.
- A handbook of tropical gardening and planting, with special reference to Ceylon, by H. F. Macmillan. .. Colombo, H.W. Cave & co., 1914. url p. 476.
- Agriculture in the tropics; an elementary treatise, by J. C. Willis. Cambridge, University Press, 1922. url p. 70.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1911 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 171, p. 172.
- "Cacao"; a treatise on the cultivation and curing of "cacao". Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 1900. url , .
- Cacao, a manual on the cultivation and curing of cacao, London, Duckworth and co., 1911. url , , , , , , , , , .
- Cacao, a treatise on the cultivation and curing of cacao, by J. Hinchley Hart. Trinidad, Printed at the Mirror Office, 1900. url , p. 60.
- Cocoa, its cultivation and preparation. London, J. Murray, 1912. url , , , , , , p. 128, p. 132, p. 35, p. 5, p. 8.
- Cocoa. By Dr. C. J. J. van Hall. London: Macmillan and Co., limited, 1914. url , , p. 138, p. 39, p. 458, p. 470, p. 473, p. 474, p. 475, p. 477, p. 507, p. 514, p. 57, p. 58.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 35 1968 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 393, p. 402, p. 403, p. 410, p. 446, p. 495, p. 513.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 1793, p. 1794.
- Cyclopedia of farm crops, New York, The Macmillan company, 1922. url p. 224, p. 697.
- Cyclopedia of farm crops, a popular survey of crops and crop-making methods in the United States and Canada; New York, The Macmillan company, 1922. url .
- Cyclopedia of farm crops: a popular survey of crops and crop-making methods in the United States and Canada / edited by L.H. Bailey. New York: Macmillan, 1922, c1907. url p. 224, p. 697.
- Diseases of crop-plants in the Lesser Antilles. By William Nowell. With a foreword by J. Bretland. Published on behalf of the Imperial Department of Agriculture. London, West India Committee[1923?] url p. 167, p. 375.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 25 1924 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 12.
- Nature. London, etc., Macmillan Journals Ltd., etc. url p. 62.
- Official guide to the Botanic Gardens, Dominica: illustrated: with an index of the principal plants. Dominica: The Garden, 1922? url p. 28, p. 49, p. 50.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 103.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 406.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 3330, p. 3331.
- Tropical agriculture: the climate, soils, cultural methods, crops, live stock, commercial importance and opportunities of the tropics / London: D. Appleton and Company, 1916. url .
- Tropical agriculture; the climate, soils, cultural methods, crops, live stock, commercial importance and opportunities of the tropics / by Earley Vernon Wilcox. London: D. Appleton and Company, 1916. url p. 75.
- Feng Kuo-mei. 1984. Malvaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 1-102.
- Hsue Hsiang-hao. 1984. Sterculiaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 112-189.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8905427
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15871262
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:825601-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 825601-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3705637
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Malvaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 264,299, 302. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Theobroma". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 302, 321. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]