Common Names in English:
Fendler Meadowrue, Fendler's Meadow-Rue, Fendler's Meadowrue
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from woody rhizomes, caudices, or tuberous
. Leaves basal and cauline, proximal
, distal leaves sessile; cauline leaves alternate. Leaf blade
1-4×-ternately or -pinnately compound
, lanceolate, or linear
, sometimes 3-lobed or more, margins
entire or crenate
. Inflorescences terminal
, sometimes also axillary
, (1-) 2-200-flowered panicles, racemes
, corymbs, umbels, or flowers solitary, to 41 cm; involucres absent or present, involucral bracts
2-3 (these compound, often resembling whorl of 6-9 simple
bracts), leaflike, not closely subtending
flowers. Flowers all bisexual
, bisexual and unisexual
on same plant, or all unisexual with sexes on same or different plants
, radially symmetric
; sepals not persistent
in fruit, 4-10, whitish to greenish yellow or purplish, plane
, lanceolate to reniform
, 1-18 mm; petals absent; stamens 7-30; filaments
or distally dilated
; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils 1-16, simple; ovule 1 per pistil; style present or absent. Fruits achenes, usually aggregate, sessile or stipitate
, or discoid
, sides prominently veined or ribbed
present or absent, terminal, straight to coiled
, 0-4 mm.
Species 120-200: nearly worldwide, mostly temperate .
Thalictrum is a taxonomically difficult genus that should be carefully researched through additional population-based field studies. Past treatments of Thalictrum have often emphasized leaf characters that are highly variable in most species; they are therefore of poor diagnostic value and not indicative of true relationships . Because of the paucity of field studies and a continuing emphasis on highly variable characters, the literature is replete with names that do not represent distinct entities. Often mixes of character states can be found within a single population; many of the character states used in past studies were neither ecologically nor geographically distinct.
Some species of Thalictrum have been divided into varieties by previous authors . In the absence of carefully collected, supporting evidence from field studies, we are unwilling to perpetuate the use of any infraspecific names .
Characters useful in identifying species of Thalictrum include leaflet shape, degree of dilation of filaments, anther length , shape of anther apex, achene shape and venation patterns , and vestiture (glands and/or hairs ) of leaves and achenes. Leaflets described in this treatment are the central, distalmost of a midstem leaf; proximal and distal leaves are more variable and often not representative of the species. Stigma and filament colors refer to fresh material in the following descriptions .
In Thalictrum species, the stigma extends down the side of the style, so length of style in fruit (beak) includes the stigma.
For many species no reliable characteristics for the identification of staminate material are known. Extensive field work and careful analysis are required to determine if such characteristics exist.
In a narrow strip from southeastern Ontario to Ohio to Louisiana, some individuals of some species in Thalictrum section Leucocoma may lack their normal vestiture. In the absence of glands or pubescence , the differences among species are difficult to describe. The remaining characteristics overlap considerably. The species involved may be identified in the final couplets of the key as follows: if the plant in hand falls into the area of overlap for the first character of the couplet, go on to the next character, and so forth, until a distinguishing character is found. One or more of the characters offered should distinguish the infrequent, problematic individual.
Several species of Thalictrum are used as ornamentals . At least one species, T. aquilegiifolium Linnaeus, occasionally escapes cultivation in Ontario and Quebec and possibly elsewhere. The plant is tall (40-100 cm) ; flowers bisexual, mauve to pink; and achenes few, filiform, 3-winged, stipitate, very small, and hidden at anthesis among the bases of long, rigid stamens.
Numerous alkaloids have been identified from plants of the genus, some with pharmacologic potential. Some exhibit antimicrobial activity; others inhibit growth of tumors or lower blood pressure in mammals.
Species Thalictrum fendleri
dark brown to ± black (when dry), fibrous
. Stems mostly
, sometimes reclining
, (20-) 30-60(-150) cm, glabrous
rhizomes or branched caudices. Leaves mainly cauline, mostly short-petiolate.
green, (2-) 3-4×-ternately compound
obliquely orbiculate or nearly cordate, apically 3-lobed,
(5-) 10-20 × (6-) 8-12(-18) mm wide, lobe
surfaces abaxially often glandular
. Inflorescences terminal
panicles, open and leafy, many flowered. Flowers: sepals whitish
or greenish, in staminate flowers
, 3-5 mm; in pistillate
flowers ovate to rhombic
or broadly lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm; filaments
deep yellow or purplish, 4-7.5 mm; anthers
2.2-3.4 mm, apiculate
to 0.8 mm; stigma purplish. Achenes 7-11(-14), not reflexed
sessile to short-stipitate; stipe 0-2 mm; body oblanceolate
obovate-elliptic, strongly laterally compressed
, (5-) 9(-11) mm,
glandular or glabrous, 3-4(-5) -veined on each side, veins ±
parallel, converging toward ends (rarely branched or sinuous
The stems and achenes of Thalictrum fendleri are often purplish. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August. • Flower Color: chartreuse, yellow, yellow-green
Size: 18-24" tall.
Willow, birch, mountain brush , sagebrush-snowberry, boxelder-cottonwood, alder, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, aspen-tall forb , and spruce-fir communities; 1100-3300 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Ranunculaceae () - Adans., 1763, nom. cons. - boutons d'or, buttercups
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
T. fendleri var. wrightii (A. Gray) Trelease • Thalictrum fendleri var. platycarpum Trelease
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Thalictrum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 62 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. actaeifolium (Baneberry-Leafed Meadow Rue) · T. alpinum (Alpine Meadow-Rue) · T. aquilegifolium (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegifolium 'Album' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegifolium 'Thundercloud' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegiifolium 'Purpureum' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegiifolium 'Sparkler' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. arkansanum (Arkansas Meadow-Rue) · T. clavatum (Mountain Meadow-Rue) · T. cooleyi (Cooley's Meadow-Rue) · T. coreanum (China Meadow Rue) · T. coriaceum (Maid of the Mist) · T. dasycarpum (Purple Meadow-Rue) · T. debile (Southern Meadow-Rue) · T. delavayi (Chinese Meadow Rue) · T. delavayi 'Alba' (Chinese Meadow Rue) · T. delavayi 'Hewitt's Double' (Hewitt's Double Chinese Meadow Rue) · T. dioicum (Early Meadow-Rue) · T. dioicum var. coriaceum (Quicksilver-Weed) · T. dioicum var. stipitatum (Quicksilver-Weed) · T. fendleri (Fendler Meadowrue) · T. fendleri var. fendleri (Fendler Meadowrue) · T. fendleri var. polycarpum (Fendler's Meadow-Rue) · T. fendleri var. wrightii (Wright's Meadow-Rue) · T. filamentosum var. tenerum (Meadow Rue) · T. filamentosum var. tenerum 'Heronswood Form' ('heronswood Meadow Rue) · T. flavum (Common Meadow Rue) · T. flavum flavum (Yellow Meadow-Rue) · T. flavum glaucum (Meadow Rue) · T. flavum 'Illuminator' (Meadow Rue) · T. glaucum (Meadow Rue) · T. heliophilum (Cathedral Bluff Meadow-Rue) · T. hultenii (Hulten's Meadow-Rue) · T. kiusianum (Dwarf Meadow Rue) · T. lucidum (Shining Meadow Rue) · T. macrostylum (Piedmont Meadow-Rue) · T. minus (Lesser Meadow Rue) · T. minus minus (Hulten's Meadow-Rue) · T. minus 'Adiantifolium' (Lesser Meadow Rue) · T. mirabile (Little Mountain Meadow-Rue) · T. nigromontanum (Black Hills Meadow-Rue) · T. occidentale (Western Meadow-Rue) · T. occidentale var. macounii (Western Meadowrue) · T. occidentale var. occidentale (Western Meadowrue) · T. occidentalis (Meadow Rue) · T. polyganum (Tall Meadow Rue) · T. pubescens (King of the Meadow) · T. reniforme (Chinese Meadowrue) · T. reniforme 'Grandiflorum' (Chinese Meadowrue) · T. revolutum (Waxyleaf Meadow Rue) · T. rochebruneanum 'Lavender Mist' (Lavender Mist Meadow Rue) · T. rochebrunianum (Lavender Mist Meadow Rue) · T. rochebrunianum'Lavender Mist' (Lavender Mist Meadow Rue) · T. sparsiflorum (Fewflower Meadow-Rue) · T. sparsiflorum sparsiflorum (Fewflower Meadow-Rue) · T. sparsiflorum var. richardsonii (Richarson's Meadow-Rue) · T. sparsiflorum var. saximontanum (Fewflower Meadow-Rue) · T. texanum (Houston Meadow-Rue) · T. thalictroides (Anemonella) · T. venulosum (Veiny Meadow-Rue) · T. 'Black Stockings' (Meadow Rue) · T. 'Elin' (Thalictrum)
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- "Thalictrum fendleri". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645490
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18670
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:714420-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 36433
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18670
- MoBot NameID: 27100844
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: THFEP THFE
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 65768
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
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- "Thalictrum fendleri". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 1,440.990 meters (4,727.657 feet), Standard Deviation = 783.990 based on 451 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]