Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Zi Jin Dan
Common Names in English:
Alpine Meadow-Rue, Alpine Meadowrue, Arctic Meadow-Rue, Dwarf Meadow-Rue
Common Names in French:
, sometimes subshrubs
or herbaceous or woody vines
. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
or variously compound
, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved
, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual
, sometimes unisexual
, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free
, imbricate or sometimes valvate
in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous
, rarely few, free; filaments
, or extrorse
; sometimes some sterile
stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate
to various degrees
; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries
. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.
About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions , particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.
, from woody rhizomes, caudices, or tuberous
. Leaves basal and cauline, proximal
, distal leaves sessile; cauline leaves alternate. Leaf blade
1-4×-ternately or -pinnately compound
, lanceolate, or linear
, sometimes 3-lobed or more, margins
entire or crenate
. Inflorescences terminal
, sometimes also axillary
, (1-) 2-200-flowered panicles, racemes
, corymbs, umbels, or flowers solitary, to 41 cm; involucres absent or present, involucral bracts
2-3 (these compound, often resembling whorl of 6-9 simple
bracts), leaflike, not closely subtending
flowers. Flowers all bisexual
, bisexual and unisexual
on same plant, or all unisexual with sexes on same or different plants
, radially symmetric
; sepals not persistent
in fruit, 4-10, whitish to greenish yellow or purplish, plane
, lanceolate to reniform
, 1-18 mm; petals absent; stamens 7-30; filaments
or distally dilated
; staminodes absent between stamens and pistils; pistils 1-16, simple; ovule 1 per pistil; style present or absent. Fruits achenes, usually aggregate, sessile or stipitate
, or discoid
, sides prominently veined or ribbed
present or absent, terminal, straight to coiled
, 0-4 mm.
Species 120-200: nearly worldwide, mostly temperate .
Thalictrum is a taxonomically difficult genus that should be carefully researched through additional population-based field studies. Past treatments of Thalictrum have often emphasized leaf characters that are highly variable in most species; they are therefore of poor diagnostic value and not indicative of true relationships . Because of the paucity of field studies and a continuing emphasis on highly variable characters, the literature is replete with names that do not represent distinct entities. Often mixes of character states can be found within a single population; many of the character states used in past studies were neither ecologically nor geographically distinct.
Some species of Thalictrum have been divided into varieties by previous authors . In the absence of carefully collected, supporting evidence from field studies, we are unwilling to perpetuate the use of any infraspecific names .
Characters useful in identifying species of Thalictrum include leaflet shape, degree of dilation of filaments, anther length , shape of anther apex, achene shape and venation patterns , and vestiture (glands and/or hairs ) of leaves and achenes. Leaflets described in this treatment are the central, distalmost of a midstem leaf; proximal and distal leaves are more variable and often not representative of the species. Stigma and filament colors refer to fresh material in the following descriptions .
In Thalictrum species, the stigma extends down the side of the style, so length of style in fruit (beak) includes the stigma.
For many species no reliable characteristics for the identification of staminate material are known. Extensive field work and careful analysis are required to determine if such characteristics exist.
In a narrow strip from southeastern Ontario to Ohio to Louisiana, some individuals of some species in Thalictrum section Leucocoma may lack their normal vestiture. In the absence of glands or pubescence , the differences among species are difficult to describe. The remaining characteristics overlap considerably. The species involved may be identified in the final couplets of the key as follows: if the plant in hand falls into the area of overlap for the first character of the couplet, go on to the next character, and so forth, until a distinguishing character is found. One or more of the characters offered should distinguish the infrequent, problematic individual.
Several species of Thalictrum are used as ornamentals . At least one species, T. aquilegiifolium Linnaeus, occasionally escapes cultivation in Ontario and Quebec and possibly elsewhere. The plant is tall (40-100 cm) ; flowers bisexual, mauve to pink; and achenes few, filiform, 3-winged, stipitate, very small, and hidden at anthesis among the bases of long, rigid stamens.
Numerous alkaloids have been identified from plants of the genus, some with pharmacologic potential. Some exhibit antimicrobial activity; others inhibit growth of tumors or lower blood pressure in mammals.
Species Thalictrum alpinum
Stems erect , scapose , or nearly scapose with very slender rhizomes, (3-) 5-20(-30) cm, glabrous . Leaves all basal or single cauline leaf near base , 2-10 cm. Leaf blade 2×-pinnately compound , proximal primary divisions ternate ; leaflets cuneate-obovate to orbiculate, apically 3-5-lobed, 2-10 mm, surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences racemes , usually elongate , few flowered. Flowers: pedicels recurved in fruit; sepals early deciduous, purplish tinged, ovate or elliptic , 1-2.3(-2.7) mm; stamens 8-15; filaments purple; anthers bright yellow, 1.5-3 mm; stigmas purple. Achenes 2-6, nearly sessile; body lance-obovoid, 2-3.5 mm, with thick veins. 2 n = 14, 21. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July, August. • Flower Color: cream, tan
Size: under 6" tall.
Wet meadows, damp rocky ledges and slopes , and cold (often calcareous ) bogs in willow-sedge, lodgepole pine, and spruce-fir; 0-3800 m (Ref. 104248).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,500 meters (0 to 8,202 feet).
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Dumortier, 1829
- Family: Ranunculaceae () - Adans., 1763, nom. cons. - boutons d'or, buttercups
- Order: Ranunculales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Ranunculanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Ranunculidae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Thalictrum alpinum var. hebetum B. Boivin
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Thalictrum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 62 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. actaeifolium (Baneberry-Leafed Meadow Rue) · T. alpinum (Alpine Meadow-Rue) · T. aquilegifolium (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegifolium 'Album' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegifolium 'Thundercloud' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegiifolium 'Purpureum' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. aquilegiifolium 'Sparkler' (Columbine Meadow Rue) · T. arkansanum (Arkansas Meadow-Rue) · T. clavatum (Mountain Meadow-Rue) · T. cooleyi (Cooley's Meadow-Rue) · T. coreanum (China Meadow Rue) · T. coriaceum (Maid of the Mist) · T. dasycarpum (Purple Meadow-Rue) · T. debile (Southern Meadow-Rue) · T. delavayi (Chinese Meadow Rue) · T. delavayi 'Alba' (Chinese Meadow Rue) · T. delavayi 'Hewitt's Double' (Hewitt's Double Chinese Meadow Rue) · T. dioicum (Early Meadow-Rue) · T. dioicum var. coriaceum (Quicksilver-Weed) · T. dioicum var. stipitatum (Quicksilver-Weed) · T. fendleri (Fendler Meadowrue) · T. fendleri var. fendleri (Fendler Meadowrue) · T. fendleri var. polycarpum (Fendler's Meadow-Rue) · T. fendleri var. wrightii (Wright's Meadow-Rue) · T. filamentosum var. tenerum (Meadow Rue) · T. filamentosum var. tenerum 'Heronswood Form' ('heronswood Meadow Rue) · T. flavum (Common Meadow Rue) · T. flavum flavum (Yellow Meadow-Rue) · T. flavum glaucum (Meadow Rue) · T. flavum 'Illuminator' (Meadow Rue) · T. glaucum (Meadow Rue) · T. heliophilum (Cathedral Bluff Meadow-Rue) · T. hultenii (Hulten's Meadow-Rue) · T. kiusianum (Dwarf Meadow Rue) · T. lucidum (Shining Meadow Rue) · T. macrostylum (Piedmont Meadow-Rue) · T. minus (Lesser Meadow Rue) · T. minus minus (Hulten's Meadow-Rue) · T. minus 'Adiantifolium' (Lesser Meadow Rue) · T. mirabile (Little Mountain Meadow-Rue) · T. nigromontanum (Black Hills Meadow-Rue) · T. occidentale (Western Meadow-Rue) · T. occidentale var. macounii (Western Meadowrue) · T. occidentale var. occidentale (Western Meadowrue) · T. occidentalis (Meadow Rue) · T. polyganum (Tall Meadow Rue) · T. pubescens (King of the Meadow) · T. reniforme (Chinese Meadowrue) · T. reniforme 'Grandiflorum' (Chinese Meadowrue) · T. revolutum (Waxyleaf Meadow Rue) · T. rochebruneanum 'Lavender Mist' (Lavender Mist Meadow Rue) · T. rochebrunianum (Lavender Mist Meadow Rue) · T. rochebrunianum'Lavender Mist' (Lavender Mist Meadow Rue) · T. sparsiflorum (Fewflower Meadow-Rue) · T. sparsiflorum sparsiflorum (Fewflower Meadow-Rue) · T. sparsiflorum var. richardsonii (Richarson's Meadow-Rue) · T. sparsiflorum var. saximontanum (Fewflower Meadow-Rue) · T. texanum (Houston Meadow-Rue) · T. thalictroides (Anemonella) · T. venulosum (Veiny Meadow-Rue) · T. 'Black Stockings' (Meadow Rue) · T. 'Elin' (Thalictrum)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 25, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645482
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18661
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2671206
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:714201-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 410482
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18661
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: THALH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 65756
- Wencai Wang, Dezhi Fu, Liang-Qian Li, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, Bryan E. Dutton, Michael G. Gilbert, Yuichi Kadota, Orbélia R. Robinson, Michio Tamura, Michael J. Warnock, Guanghua Zhu & Svetlana N. Ziman "Ranunculaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Marilyn M. Park & Dennis Festerling Jr. "Thalictrum". in Flora of North America Vol. 3 Page 258. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 460.360 meters (1,510.367 feet), Standard Deviation = 366.110 based on 9,182 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]