Common Names in English:
Kokihi Beach Spinach
, or shrubs
, succulent. Stems erect
. Leaves simple
, rarely pinnate, mostly opposite, sometimes alternate, in many species fleshy
entire, rarely with teeth; true stipules absent, sometimes a stipule-like sheath
present at base
. Inflorescences terminal
or seemingly axillary
cymes, or solitary flowers. Flowers bisexual
, rarely unisexual
, perigynous or epigynous
. Nectaries separate or in a ring
around ovary. Tepals (4 or) 5( 8), connate
below into a tube
. Petals absent or present. Stamens 3 to many, free
or connate at base, outermost often as filamentous
dehiscing by longitudinal
slits. Ovary inferior, syncarpous
; carpels 2 to many; ovules 1 to many, on long funicles
, mostly campylotropous; placentation axile
, sometimes basal-parietal. Stigmas as many as carpels. Fruit a hygroscopic
or circumscissile capsule, more rarely a berry or nut. Seeds with slender embryo curved
, rarely with an aril; endosperm scanty or absent.
About 135 genera and 1800 species: mainly in arid , subtropical regions, most species in S Africa, some in Australia and W parts of the Americas, some pantropical ; three genera and three species in China.
The family is divided into five subfamilies, of which two, Sesuvioideae and Tetragonioideae, are represented by native species in China.
Many members of the subfamilies Mesembryanthemoideae and Ruschioideae are ornamentals and are in cultivation worldwide. Until the early 20th century, these were nearly all included in the genus Mesembryanthemum. Since then, the majority of the members of that genus has been placed in a great number of smaller genera. Five species have been recorded as cultivated in China: Aptenia cordifolia (Linnaeus f.) Schwantes, Carpobrotus edulis (Linnaeus) L. Bolus, Glottiphyllum longum (Haworth) N. E. Brown, Lampranthus spectabilis (Haworth) N. E. Brown, and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Linnaeus. Further species are likely to be introduced into China.
Tetragonia, together with the genus Tetragonocarpus, is sometimes treated as an independent family, the Tetragoniaceae. Sesuvium and Trianthema, together with Cypselea Turpin and Zaleya N. L. Burman, are sometimes treated as a separate family, the Sesuviaceae.
, succulent, glabrous
, or papillate
. Roots fibrous
. Stems prostrate
[subscandent], semiwoody at base
. Leaves cauline, alternate, usually petioled; stipules absent; blade
entire to slightly sinuate
or shallowly lobed
. Inflorescences: axillary
of 2-3 flowers or flowers solitary, sessile or peduncled; bracts absent. Flowers bisexual
, inconspicuous, 5[-10] mm diam.; calyx campanulate
to ovary, angled
, or horned; calyx lobes [3-]4-5[-7], green or yellow adaxially; petals and petaloid
staminodia absent; nectary
absent; stamens 1-20, perigynous; pistil 3-10-carpellate; ovary inferior [half inferior], [1-]3-10-loculed; placentation apical; ovule 1 per locule; styles 3-10; stigmas 3-10. Fruits nutlike [drupaceous
], angled, indehiscent; horns [2-]4-6[-7]. Seeds 1-10, light brown, ± reniform
, arils absent.
Species 60: introduced ; South America, e Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands (New Zealand), Australia.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: pale yellow
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -117 meters (0 to -384 feet).
Biome: Marine .
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Aizoaceae () - Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - ice plants
- Suborder: Phytolaccineae ()
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Tetragonia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Forest culture and eucalyptus trees, San FranciscoCubery1876 url p. 419.
- Genesis and development of sand formations on marine coasts, Rock Island, Ill., Augustana Book Concern, Printers, 1910. url .
- Illustrations of the New Zealand flora / edited by T.F. Cheeseman with the assistance of W.B. Hemsley; the plates drawn by Matilda Smith. Wellington: John Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1914. url p. 242, p. 243.
- Manual of the New Zealand flora. By T. F. Cheeseman. .. Wellington, N. Z., J. Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1906. url p. 1098.
- Select extra-tropical plants readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation with indications of their native countries and some of their uses / by Baron Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: R. S. Brain, govt. printer, 1895. url p. 527.
- Select extra-tropical plants, readily eligible for industrial culture or naturalisation, with indications of their native countries and some of their uses. By Baron Ferd. von Mueller. .. Sydney, T. Richards, government printer, 1881. url p. 331.
- Select plants (exclusive of timber trees) readily eligible for Victorian industrial culture with indications of their native countries and some of their uses; an enumeration / offered by Ferd. von Mueller. Melbourne: s.n., 1872 url p. 150.
- The students' flora of New Zealand and the outlying islands. Wellington, N. Z., John Mackay, govt. printer url .
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url p. 143, p. 155, p. 159, p. 166, p. 168, p. 168, p. 171, p. 179, p. 209, p. 219, p. 232, p. 239, p. 239, p. 241, p. 241, p. 244, p. 245, p. 246, p. 249, p. 250, p. 26, p. 263, p. 273, p. 335, p. 335, p. 336, p. 338, p. 338, p. 371, p. 388, p. 392, p. 551, p. 6, p. 655, p. 78, p. 83, p. 99, p. 99.
- Lu Dequan. 1996. Aizoaceae (SesuviumTetragonia). In: Tang Changlin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 26: 3036.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 07, 2007:
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10491820
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14972411
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:364798-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 896201
- Dequan Lu & Heidrun E. K. Hartmann "Aizoaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 440. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Nancy J. Vivrette "Tetragonia". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 75, 76, 77. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = -48.500 meters (-159.121 feet), Standard Deviation = 110.770 based on 6 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]