- Taxodium distichum (baldcypress) is the state tree of Louisiana. [source]
- Cypress knees are extensions of the roots that grow out of wet soils or water to get oxygen. They do not develop on this species when it is planted where it is not constantly wet.
- Bald Cypress is in the Pine family , but it's not an evergreen . In the fall , the leaves turn a glowing yellow and drop.
- A long-lived tree, they can live to be 1,200 years old!
- Cypress knees are extensions of the roots that grow out of wet soils or water to get oxygen. They do not develop on this species when it is planted where it is not constantly wet.
- Bald Cypress is in the Pine family, but it's not an evergreen. In the fall, the leaves turn a glowing yellow and drop.
- A long-lived tree, they can live to be 1,200 years old!
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Bald Cypress, Bald-Cypress, Baldcypress, Common Baldcypress, Pond Bald Cypress, Pond Cypress, Pondcypress
Common Names in Italian:
Cipresso Delle Paludi
, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, scalelike and then often dimorphic
with flattened facial leaves and keeled
leaves, or needlelike particularly in juvenile plants
, often with an abaxial
. Pollen cones terminal
, solitary, maturing and shed annually; microsporophylls
6-16, decussate or whorled
, each bearing (2 or) 3-6(-9) pollen sacs
; pollen wingless. Seed cones usually terminal, solitary, globose
, or oblong
or indehiscent when mature
in 1st or 2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free
only at apex; ovules 1-numerous per bract axil, erect
; cone scales of mature cones 3-16, flat or peltate, woody, leathery, or succulent, 1-20-seeded. Seeds winged
or not; wings
derived from seed coat
. Cotyledons usually 2, rarely 3-6. Germination epigeal.
Nineteen genera and ca. 125 species: worldwide; eight genera (one introduced ) and 46 species (16 endemic, 13 introduced) in China.
deciduous or evergreen
commonly producing erect
, irregularly conic to rounded
"knees" in periodically flooded habitats
. Leaves alternate, in 2 ranks
or not. Adult
leaves divergent to strongly appressed
or linear-lanceolate to deltate, generally flattened, free
portion to ca.
17 mm; abaxial
absent. Pollen cones with 10--20 sporophylls, each sporophyll with 2--10 pollen sacs
. Seed cones maturing and shattering in 1 season
, nearly globose
falling early, 5--10, valvate
, ± peltate, thin and woody. Seeds (1--) 2 per scale, irregularly 3-angled, wingless; cotyledons 4--9. x
Species 1(--3) : North America, Mexico, Central America in Guatemala.
The pollen cones are usually borne at the base of alternate leaves, forming pendent axillary panicles; they occur less commonly singly or in racemes .
Taxodium is variously treated as one to three species but treated here as one polymorphic species with two varieties in the flora . A third taxon tentatively accorded varietal rank--- Taxodium distichum (Linnaeus) Richard var. mexicanum Gordon (= Taxodium mucronatum Tenore) ---and recognized by some authors as occurring within our range , appears to differ only in minor phenological characters. Whether or not populations from farther south in Mexico and Guatemala differ sufficiently for formal taxonomic recognition at any rank has yet to be determined.
Species Taxodium distichum
enlarged basally and often conspicuously
; crown monopodial and conic when young, often becoming
irregularly flattopped or deliquescent (branched and so divided
the main axis cannot be determined) with age. Shoot
, long shoots indeterminate, bearing individually abscising,
to lanceolate leaves, short shoots determinate, abscising
in autumn with their leaves, variable, intergrading, at one extreme
pendent to horizontally spreading
, bearing decurrent, narrowly linear
and laterally divergent leaves in 2 rows
, at other extreme strictly
to occasionally pendent, bearing short-lanceolate to deltate
and tightly appressed
leaves. Pollen cones in pendent panicles to
25 cm, 2--3 mm, conspicuous
in winter prior to pollination. Seed
cones 1.5--4 cm. [source]
The two varieties recognized in the flora are indistinguishable in reproductive characteristics and continuously intergrading in morphologic and phenologic characteristics, although pure populations of the extremes appear morphologically and ecologically distinct . Unlike the varieties in the flora, var. mexicanum is annually cladoptosic, with determinate short shoots abscising concomitantly with expansion of shoots of the following year. Specimens from juvenile individuals, stump sprouts, fertile branchlets , terminal vegetative branchlets, or late-season growth may not be determinable to variety. [source]
ID Features: Spiral leaf arrangement on most stems. Compare to Metasequoia glyptostroboides which has opposite leaf. arrangement. Slender twigs with raised leaf scars. "knees" on plants in wet sites. Buttressed trunks. Reddish brown bark. Airy foliage. Deciduous conifer. Conical habit.
Flowers: Monoecious. Make flowers in pendulous 4" to 5" clusters . Female flowers are cones. Bloom time is March and April. • Bloom Period: March, April, May. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none • Flower Conspicuous: None
Seeds: Fruit: Globe-shaped cones. Change from green to brown. 0.5" to 1" diameter.
Foliage: Needle-like leaves have a feathery, delicate look, yellow-tinged • Foliage Shape: Linear • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Green • Juvenile foliage: Green • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Green • Spring foliage: Green • Summer foliage: Leaves are deciduous. Stems are either persistent or deciduous. Persistent stems hold spirally-arranged needles and deciduous stems. Deciduous stems hold needles in 2-rankes and lack buds. Needle leaves are flattened, 0.33" to 0.75" long. Foliage emerges bright yellow-green and matures to a soft green. Leaves emerge late in the spring . • Fall foliage: Needles turn orange-brown in fall .
Growth Rate: Slow to moderate. • Size: over 40' tall.
Landscape Uses: As a lawn tree . For shade. For decoration. Useful is wet sites. Works well at pond edges . Shows well in groupings or groves. Airy foliage texture useful. • Liabilities: A number of diseases and insects can attack weakened trees . Typically trouble free . Perhaps spider mites pose the greatest threat in Connecticut. • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,852 meters (0 to 15,919 feet).
Culture: Space 15-20' apart.
Soil: Adaptable to wet or dry soil. • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Water Requirements: Forms knees in wet areas.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Burnett
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Taxodium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 15 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
T. ascendens 'Debonair' (Pond Cypress) · T. ascendens 'Prairie Sentinel' (Pond Cypress) · T. distichum (Bald Cypress) · T. distichum formapendens (Bald Cypress) · T. distichum var. distichum (Swamp Cypress) · T. distichum var. imbricarium 'Nutans' (Nodding Pond Cypress) · T. distichum var. imbricatum (Pond Cypress) · T. distichum var. imbricatum 'Prairie Sentinel' (Prairie Sentinel Bald-Cypress) · T. distichum 'Cascade Falls' (Weeping Bald Cypress) · T. distichum 'Monarch of Illinois' (Bald Cypress) · T. distichum 'Nelson' (Bald Cypress) · T. distichum 'Peve Minaret' (Pave Minaret Bald Cypress) · T. distichum 'Secrest' (Bald Cypress) · T. distichum 'Shawnee Brave' (Bald Cypress) · T. mucronatum (Montezuma Bald Cypress)
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- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:263758-1
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