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Syzygium jambos

(Malabar Plum)

Overview

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Large tree from tropical Asia with large white flowers and crisp , edible fruit about 2.5 - 4 cm in diameter. Note the very dominant nature of the androecium in the open flowers.

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Afrikaans:

Jamboes

Common Names in Azerbaijani:

Çəhrayı alma

Common Names in Bengali, Bangla:

গোলাপজাম

Common Names in Burmese:

Thabyu Thabye, ဇမ္ဗူ့သပြေပင်

Common Names in Chinese:

Pu Tao, 蒲桃

Common Names in Dutch:

Djamboe aer mawar

Common Names in English:

Malabar Plum, Apel En Wai, Iouen Wai, Jambos, Jambrosade, Jambu mawar, Jamrose, Kavika Ni India, Kavika Ni Vavalangi, Malabar-Plum, Malay Apple, Plum Rose, Pomarosa, Pomarrosa, Pomme Rosa, Rose Apple, Rose-Apple, Water Apple, Wax Apple

Common Names in Finnish:

Rusojambolaani

Common Names in French:

Jambosier, Jamrosat, Pomme Rose, Pomme-Rose

Common Names in German:

Aprikosenjambose, Jambubaum, Rosenapfel, Rosenapfelbaum

Common Names in Indonesian:

Jambu mawar

Common Names in Japanese:

Futo Momo, フトモモ

Common Names in Khmer:

Châm´puu

Common Names in Laotian:

Chièng, Kièng

Common Names in Lithuanian:

Rausvasis gvazdikmedis

Common Names in Malay:

Jambu Air Mawar (Indonesia), Jambu Ayer Mawar, Jambu Kelampok, Jambu Kelampol, Jambu Kraton (Indonesia), Jambu Mawar (Indonesia), Jambu Mawer, Pokok Jambu Mawar

Common Names in Malayalam:

Yamu Panawa, പനിനീർ ചാമ്പ

Common Names in Nepalese:

Gulaav Jaamun

Common Names in Polish:

Czapetka jambos

Common Names in Portuguese:

Jambeiro, Jambo, Jambo Amarelo, Jambo Branco, Jambo Rosa, Maçâ Rosa

Common Names in Russian:

Sitsigiui Dzhamboza, Розовое яблоко

Common Names in Spanish:

Jambo Amarillo, Manzana Rosa, Manzanita Rosa, Poma-Rosa, Pomarrosa, Pomarrosa (Puerto Rico), Pomarrosa Manzana Rosa (Cuba), Pomarrosa Pomo (Dominica Rep), Yambo, Yambo (Philippines)

Common Names in Swedish:

Rosenäpple

Common Names in Tagalog:

Tampoy, Yambo

Common Names in Thai:

Chomphûu Náam Dok Mái (Chomphuu Namdokmai), Ma Nom Hom (Northern Thailand), ชมพู่น้ำดอกไม้

Common Names in Tonga (Tonga Islands):

Fekika papālangi

Common Names in Vietnamese:

Bô Dào, Gioi hoa vàng, Ly, Roi

Common Names in Visayan:

Bunlaun

Description

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Family Myrtaceae

Trees or shrubs , evergreen , usually with essential oils-containing cavities in foliage , branchlets , and flowers. Stipules absent or small and caducous . Leaves opposite, occasionally alternate, occasionally ternate or pseudo-whorled; leaf blade with secondary veins pinnate or basal, often with intramarginal veins near margin , margin usually entire. Inflorescences axillary or terminal , cymose but variously arranged, 1- to many-flowered. Flowers bisexual , sometimes polygamous, actinomorphic . Hypanthium usually adnate to ovary and prolonged above it. Calyx lobes (3 or) 4 or 5 or more, distinct or connate into a calyptra. Petals 4 or 5, sometimes absent, distinct or connate into a calyptra, sometimes coherent and pseudocalyptrate. Stamens usually numerous , in 1 to several whorls; filaments distinct or connate into 5 bundles opposite petals; anthers 2-celled, dorsifixed or basifixed , dehiscing longitudinally or rarely terminally; connectives usually terminating in 1 or more apical glands . Ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or very rarely superior, carpels 2 to more, locules 1 to many, pseudoseptum sometimes present, placentation usually axile but occasionally parietal ; ovules 1 to several per locule. Style single; stigma single. Fruit a capsule, berry, drupaceous berry, or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seeds without endosperm or endosperm sparse and thin; testa cartilaginous or thinly membranous, sometimes absent; embryo straight or curved .

About 130 genera and 4500-5000 species: Mediterranean region, sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, Pacific islands, tropical and South America; 10 genera (five introduced ) and 121 species (50 endemic, 32 introduced treated here) in China.

Many Myrtaceae are cultivated garden ornamentals , street trees, or plantation trees. Some members of tribe Syzygieae are grown as fruit crops. In addition to the cultivated members of the family treated here, some others grown in China include Acca sellowiana (O. Berg ) Burrett (Feijoa sellowiana (O. Berg) O. Berg), Myrtus communis Linnaeus, and Syncarpia glomulifera (Smith) Niedenzu.[1]

Genus Syzygium

Trees or shrubs . Branchlets sometimes 2-4-ridged, usually glabrous . Leaves opposite or sometimes whorled , petiolate to subsessile ; leaf blade densely to sometimes sparsely pinnately veined. Inflorescences terminal or axillary , usually panicles of cymes, 3- to many-flowered; bracts small, caducous after flowering. Flowers stipitate or not. Hypanthium obconic or sometimes clavate . Calyx lobes 4 or 5 or rarely more, usually short, caducous or persistent , apex usually obtuse , rarely connate and then calyptrate . Petals 4 or 5 or rarely more, distinct and then expanding separately or coherent and then caducous as a unit . Stamens numerous , distinct but occasionally slightly adhering at base ; anthers minute, versatile, 2-celled, cells parallel or divergent, dehiscing longitudinally or by a short terminal slit; connectives usually terminating in an apical gland . Ovary inferior, 2 or 3-loculed; ovules many per locule. Style linear . Fruit drupaceous , 1(or 2) -seeded. Seeds sometimes with or without a testa, often with a pseudotesta ± adhering to pericarp, rarely with intrusive branching tissue extending into and interlocking cotyledons; embryo usually uniembryonic, sometimes polyembryonic.

About 1200 species: tropical Africa, subtropical to tropical Asia, Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Pacific islands; 80 species (45 endemic, two introduced ) in China.

Syzygium is treated here in a broad sense with Acmena and Cleistocalyx included within it. Morphological and anatomical investigations, and molecular sequence studies of chloroplast and nuclear regions, provide support for such an expanded concept (Amer. J. Bot. 59: 423-436. 1972; Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 92: 433-489. 1972; Proc. Fourth Fl. Mal. Symp. 75-85. 2001; Austral . Syst. Bot. 17: 63-72. 2004; Taxon 55: 79-94. 2006).[2]

Physical Description

Species Syzygium jambos

Trees , to 10 m tall. Stems very short, broadly branched. Branchlets terete or subterete, sometimes apically much compressed , sometimes shallowly grooved . Petiole 5-10 mm; leaf blade lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, oblong , or linear , 8-26 × 2-4.5 cm, leathery or stiffly papery , both surfaces with numerous small pellucid glands , secondary veins 8-25 on each side of midvein , 0.7-1.5 cm apart, and abaxially obviously raised, reticulate veins conspicuous, intramarginal veins 2-3(-4) mm from margin , base narrow to broadly cuneate, apex acuminate to long acuminate. Inflorescences usually terminal cymes with several flowers, sometimes axillary and solitary; peduncle 1-3.5 cm. Flowers white or pink, 3-4 cm in diam. Hypanthium obconic, 0.8-1.5 cm. Calyx lobes 4, semiorbicular or triangular-ovate, 5-8 × 6-9 mm. Petals distinct , broadly ovate , 1.4-1.5 cm. Stamens 1.5-2.8 cm; anthers ca. 1.5 mm. Style 2-3.5 cm. Fruit pale yellow or red when ripe , globose or ellipsoid , 2.5-5 cm in diam., with oil glands , 1- or 2-seeded, pericarp fleshy . Embryos numerous. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. May-Jun or Nov-Dec. [source]

Flowers: Flower Color: cream, near white, tan, white

Habitat

Mixed forests , mountain slopes , riversides , river valleys; below 100 to 1500 m. [3].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,037 meters (0 to 9,964 feet).[4]

Biology

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Growth

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Eugenia jambos L. • Jambos jambos (L.) Millsp. • Jambosa jambos (L.) Millsp. • Myrtus jambos (L.) Kunth

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 11-Nov-2003

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Syzygium

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 27 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

S. angophoroides (Yarrabah Satinash) · S. aqueum (Watery Roseapple) · S. aromaticum (Clove) · S. australe (Brush Cherry) · S. australe 'Australis' (Australian Brush Cherry) · S. cumini (Jambolan) · S. floribundum (Weeping Myrtle) · S. grande (Sea Apple) · S. guineense (Water Pear) · S. jambos (Malabar Plum) · S. jambos 'Alston' (Malabar Plum) · S. javanicum (Java Plum) · S. luehmannii (Cherry Alder) · S. maire (Maire Tawhake) · S. malaccense (Macopa) · S. malaccense 'Maroone' (Malay Apple) · S. moorei (Coolamon) · S. oleosum (Blue Cherry) · S. paniculatum (Australian Brush Cherry) · S. papyraceum (Paperbark Satinash) · S. polyanthum (Indonesian Bay Leaf) · S. pseudofastigiatum (Claudie Satinash) · S. pycnanthum (Wild Rose) · S. samarangense (Java Apple) · S. sandwicense ('ohi'a Ha) · S. wilsonii (Brush Cherry) · S. xerampelinum (Mulgrave Satinash)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Jie Chen & Lyn A. Craven "Myrtaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 321. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. "Syzygium". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 321, 335. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. "Syzygium jambos". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 337, 338, 340, 342, 344. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  4. Mean = 681.700 meters (2,236.549 feet), Standard Deviation = 942.740 based on 185 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-21