Common Names in English:
African Evergreen, American Evergreen, Arrow Leaf, Arrowhead Vine, Arrowhead-Vine, Goosefoot Plant, Goosefoot Vine, Nephthytis
, wetland or terrestrial
, occasionally emergent or floating, [often epiphytic or climbing
], usually with milky
or watery latex, rarely colored
. Rhizomes, corms, or stolons present; rhizomes vertical
or horizontal, creeping
at or near surface
, sometimes branched; corms underground, starchy; stolons at or near surface. Stems absent [sometimes aboveground or aerial
]. Cataphylls usually present. Leaves rarely solitary, alternate or clustered; petiole
rarely absent, with sheathing
, occasionally sagittate-cordate, larger than 1.5 cm; venation
parallel or pinnate- or palmate-netted. Inflorescences spadices, each with 3--900 usually tightly grouped, sessile flowers, subtended by spathe
; spathe rarely absent, persistent
(sometimes only proximally) or deciduous, variously colored; spadix cylindric
, various parts occasionally naked or with sterile
flowers. Flowers bisexual
usually on same plants
or functionally on different plants, staminate flowers
distal to pistillate when unisexual; perianth absent or present; stamens 2--12, distinct
in synandria; ovaryies 1, 1--3(--many) -locular, sessile or embedded
in spadix; styles 1; stigmas hemispheric
, capitate, or discoid
[sometimes strongly lobed
]. Fruits berries
, distinct or connate at maturity. Seeds 1--40(--many) per berry.
Genera 105, species more than 3300 (8 genera, 10 species in the flora ; species in 10 additional genera may persist locally within flora area, see talbe 203.1) : nearly worldwide, primarily tropical regions .
Araceae are best characterized by the inflorescence, a fleshy cylindric or ovoid, unbranched spadix subtended or surrounded by a spathe. True spathes are absent in the Nearctic genus Orontium and in the Australian genus Gymnostachys. Other plant families with a compressed spadix-like inflorescence, such as Piperaceae and Cyclanthaceae, either do not have a structure equivalent to a spathe (Piperaceae) or have early-deciduous bracts (Cyclanthaceae) . Plants are usually glabrous , rarely pubescent or spiny (pubescent in Pistia) . Many Araceae exhibit typical monocotyledonous parallel leaf venation, but some genera have net leaf venation more typical of dicotyledons.
Infrafamilial classification of the Araceae is under active study. The only classification of the family to date to utilize modern phylogenetic techniques (S. J. Mayo et al. 1997) recognizes seven subfamilies, of which three are represented in native temperate North American aroid flora: Orontioideae (Orontium, Symplocarpus, Lysichiton) ; Calloideae (Calla) ; and Aroideae (Peltandra, Arisaema, and Pistia) . Acorus, a genus historically included in Araceae, is treated as a separate family in theat flora based on extensive morphologic and chemical evidence that supports its removal from Arales (M. H. Grayum 1987) .
The number of genera of Araceae occurring in temperate North America is low in comparison with other continents, and primitive taxa are disproportionately represented. Orontioideae and Calloideae, which include four of the seven native genera found in the flora area, are the basal clades within Araceae. Plants in these subfamilies possess the primitive states for many characteristics in Araceae and share few derived characteristics with other aroid genera (M. H. Grayum 1990) . The more advanced genera native to the flora area include one genus endemic to eastern North America (Peltandra), a pantropical genus with an uncertain native distribution (Pistia), and a genus clearly Eurasian in origin (Arisaema) .
Araceae contain crystals of calcium oxalate , which are often cited as causing the intense irritation experienced when handling or consuming the raw plant tissue of many genera in the family. This supposition is contradicted by the fact that although irritation generally is not produced by properly cooked plants, the crystals remain after heating. Other compounds must therefore be involved with causing this reaction. Studies of Dieffenbachia demonstrated that a proteolytic enzyme , as well as other compounds, are responsible for the severe irritation caused by this plant and that raphides of calcium oxalate do not play a major role (J. Arditti and E. Rodriguez 1982) . Whether irritation is caused by enzymes or crystals, that aspect of Araceae has resulted in aroid genera being included in many lists of poisonous plants (e.g. , K . F. Lampe and M. A. McCann 1985; G. A. Mulligan and D. B . Munro 1990; K. D. Perkins and W. W. Payne 1978) .
Despite the toxic effects of Araceae, species of several genera are cultivated as food plants, mainly as subsistence crops in tropical areas. The major edible Araceae are Colocasia esculenta and several species of Xanthosoma, grown primarily for their corms and sometimes for their leaves. Most North American species of Araceae were historically used by Native Americans, as both food and medicine (T. Plowman 1969) . The family, is currently more valued for its many ornamental species , and is the most important family in North America for indoor foliage plants (T. B. Croat 1994) . Araceae commonly grown as ornamentals in American homes include species of Aglaonema (Chinese-evergreen), Anthurium, Caladium, Dieffenbachia (dumbcane), Epipremnum (golden pothos), Philodendron, Spathiphyllum, Syngonium, and Zantedeschia (calla-lily) .
Plants of some cultivated species of Araceae escape and may persist or naturalize , especially in warmer climates. One of these species, Colocasia esculenta, is widespread enough to warrant full inclusion in the flora, but other introduced species of Araceae are very local in occurrence. Uncommon species represented by herbarium specimens or literature reports as escaped or persisting from cultivation are listed (table 203.1) with distinguishing characteristics and areas of occurrence.
Flowers: Bloom Period: blooms repeatedly • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 12-18" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,750 meters (0 to 12,303 feet).
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- (Bartl., 1830) Takhtajan, 1997
- (Dumortier, 1829) Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Alismatales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Aranae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Aridae () - (Bartl., 1830) Takhtajan, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Nephthytis triphylla Nash • Syngonium albolineatum W. Bull • Syngonium gracile Matuda • Syngonium oerstedianum Schott • Syngonium podophyllum var. albolineatum (W. Bull) Engl. • Syngonium podophyllum var. oerstedianum (Schott) Engl.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 11-Nov-2003
Members of the genus Syngonium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 18 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. angustatum (Fivefingers) · S. erythrophyllum (Syngonium) · S. macrophyllum (Arrowhead Vine) · S. podophyllum (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Albo-Variegatum' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Dali' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Emerald Gem' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Gold Illusion' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Holly M' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Imperial White' (Nephthytis) · S. podophyllum 'Mango Allusion' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Mottled Arrowhead' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Mouse Ears' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Neon' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Neon Pink' (African Evergreen) · S. podophyllum 'Regina Red' (African Evergreen) · S. 'Christmas' (Syngonium) · S. 'White Butterfly' (Nephthytis)
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- Addisonia: colored illustrations and popular descriptions of plants. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1916-. url , p. 7.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 27 1928 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 104, p. 111, p. 410, p. 415, p. 43, p. 451, p. 455, p. 46, p. 463, p. 582, p. 73, p. 87.
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- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 160, p. 161.
- Publication / Institute of Social Anthropology. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1944- url p. 345.
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 485, p. 79.
- The carnivorous plants, by Francis Ernest Lloyd. .. Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Company, 1942. url p. 349.
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- Trees and shrubs of Mexico / By Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1920-1926. url p. 87.
- Useful plants of the Siona and Secoya Indians of eastern Ecuador / William T. Vickers, Timothy Plowman. 15 1984 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1984. url p. 6, p. 63.
- Vernacular list of trees, shrubs, and woody climbers in the Madras Presidency. Madras, Printed by the Superintendant, Government Press, 1915. url p. 1010, p. 329, p. 330, p. 418, p. 540, p. 642, p. 883, p. 897.
- Wrightia. 7 1981-1984 Richardson, Tex. [etc.]University of Texas at Dallas. url p. 124.
- Bown, D. 1988. Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family. Portland.
- Grayum, M. H. 1990. Evolution and phylogeny of the Araceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 628--697.
- Lampe, K. F. and M. A. McCann. 1985. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. Chicago.
- Mayo, S. J., J. Bogner, and P. C. Boyce. 1997. The Genera of Araceae. 1 vol. + laser disc. [London.]
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- Perkins, K. D. and W. W. Payne. 1978. Guide to the Poisonous and Irritant Plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida.
- Plowman, T. 1969. Folk uses of New World aroids. Econ. Bot. 23: 97--122.
- Thompson, S. A. 1995. Systematics and Biology of the Araceae and Acoraceae of Temperate North America. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Illinois. Add Urbana-Champaign.
- Wilson, K. A. 1960. The genera of the Arales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 41: 47--72.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, SysTax
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662267
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-199060
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14252981
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:89152-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 36053
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 42553
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SYPOA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 65151
- Sue A. Thompson "Araceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 391.730 meters (1,285.203 feet), Standard Deviation = 765.790 based on 686 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]