Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Common Sweetleaf, Horse Sugar (Usa), Horse-Sugar, Sweetleaf, Wild Laurel, Yellow-Wood, Yellowwood
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in unspecified:
Common Sweetleaf, Sweetleaf
paniculata deciduous) . Leaves spirally or distichously arranged, simple
; stipules absent; leaf blade
, or glandular
or rarely flat or prominent
. Inflorescences in spikes, racemes
, panicles, or glomerules
, rarely flowers solitary. Flowers actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
, supported by 1 bract and 2 bractlets
, rarely bractless or with several bracts in leaf axil
. Ovary inferior to half inferior, 2--5-locular but unless stated otherwise in descriptions
3-locular, with 2--4 ovules per locule. Calyx lobes
(3--) 5, persistent
or imbricate. Corolla white (not repeated in descriptions) or yellow, gamopetalous but divided
nearly to base
(or to middle
in S. pendula) ; lobes (3--) 5(--11), imbricate. Stamens many, rarely 4 or 5, adnate
to base of corolla tube
Symplocos, monadelphous to pentadelphous
in subgenus Hopea; filaments
or in fascicles; anthers
subglobose, 2-locular. Ovary usually with an apical 5-glandular, annular
, cylindrical, or 5-lobed disc. Style 1, filiform
; stigma small, capitate or 2--5-lobed. Fruit a drupe. Seeds with copious
endosperm; embryo straight or curved
; cotyledons very short.
One genus and ca. 200 species: widely distributed in tropics and subtropics of Asia, Australia, and America; 42 species (18 endemic) in China.
Flowers: Bloom Period: January, February. • Flower Color: near white, pale yellow, white
Size: 20-30' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Culture: Space 15-20' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 6.0
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Hopea tinctoria L. • Symplocos tinctoria var. ashei Harbison • Symplocos tinctoria var. pygmaea Fern.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Symplocos
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. coccinea (Limoncillo) · S. lanata (Nispero Cimarron) · S. martinicensis (Martinique Sweetleaf) · S. micrantha (Aceitunilla) · S. paniculata (Asiatic Sweetleaf) · S. racemosa (Lodh Tree) · S. tacanensis (Palo Mora) · S. tinctoria (Common Sweetleaf)
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- Trees, shrubs and vines of the northeastern United States. .. together with an account of the principal foreign hardy trees, shrubs and vines cultivated in our country, and found in Central Park, New York City by H.E. Parkhurst. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1903. url p. 206, p. 448.
- Winter botany, a companion volume to the author's Plant materials of decorative gardening, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 307.
- Winter botany, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 307.
- Wu Rong-fen (as Wu Young-fen) in Wu Young-fen & Hwang Shu-mei, eds. 1987. Symplocaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 60(2): 1-77.
- Wu Rong-fen (as Wu Young-fen) in Wu Young-fen & Hwang Shu-mei, eds. 1987. Symplocaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 60(2): 1-77.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 22, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 5 providers.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (May 01, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 22, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2649319
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-23878
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13742636
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:827336-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 451615
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 23878
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 248040-2
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SYTIP
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 63087
- Young-fen Wu & Hans P. Nooteboom "Symplocaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 235. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Symplocos". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 235. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 124.190 meters (407.448 feet), Standard Deviation = 178.250 based on 407 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]