Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Zhu Zi Shu
Common Names in English:
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Hindi:
Bodhra, Lodh, Lodha
Common Names in Malayalam:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Sanskrit:
Lodhra, Shavara, Tilva
Common Names in Tamil:
Velli, Velli Lothi
Common Names in Telugu:
paniculata deciduous) . Leaves spirally or distichously arranged, simple
; stipules absent; leaf blade
, or glandular
or rarely flat or prominent
. Inflorescences in spikes, racemes
, panicles, or glomerules
, rarely flowers solitary. Flowers actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
, supported by 1 bract and 2 bractlets
, rarely bractless or with several bracts in leaf axil
. Ovary inferior to half inferior, 2--5-locular but unless stated otherwise in descriptions
3-locular, with 2--4 ovules per locule. Calyx lobes
(3--) 5, persistent
or imbricate. Corolla white (not repeated in descriptions) or yellow, gamopetalous but divided
nearly to base
(or to middle
in S. pendula) ; lobes (3--) 5(--11), imbricate. Stamens many, rarely 4 or 5, adnate
to base of corolla tube
Symplocos, monadelphous to pentadelphous
in subgenus Hopea; filaments
or in fascicles; anthers
subglobose, 2-locular. Ovary usually with an apical 5-glandular, annular
, cylindrical, or 5-lobed disc. Style 1, filiform
; stigma small, capitate or 2--5-lobed. Fruit a drupe. Seeds with copious
endosperm; embryo straight or curved
; cotyledons very short.
One genus and ca. 200 species: widely distributed in tropics and subtropics of Asia, Australia, and America; 42 species (18 endemic) in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Primulanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1996
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Roxb. Publication : Hort. Bengal. 40; Fl. Ind. ii. 539.
Members of the genus Symplocos
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. coccinea (Limoncillo) · S. lanata (Nispero Cimarron) · S. martinicensis (Martinique Sweetleaf) · S. micrantha (Aceitunilla) · S. paniculata (Asiatic Sweetleaf) · S. racemosa (Lodh Tree) · S. tacanensis (Palo Mora) · S. tinctoria (Common Sweetleaf)
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- Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, mana London, Henry G. Bohn, 1854. url p. 174.
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- The commercial products of India: being an abridgment of The dictionary of the economic products of India / by Sir George Watt; published under the authority of His Majesty's secretary of state for India in council. London: J. Murray, 1908. url p. 1053, p. 49.
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- Wu Rong-fen (as Wu Young-fen) in Wu Young-fen & Hwang Shu-mei, eds. 1987. Symplocaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 60(2): 1-77.
- Wu Rong-fen (as Wu Young-fen) in Wu Young-fen & Hwang Shu-mei, eds. 1987. Symplocaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 60(2): 1-77.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 16, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3424585
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15873617
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:827269-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 827267-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1112183
- Young-fen Wu & Hans P. Nooteboom "Symplocaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 235. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Symplocos". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 235. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]