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Streptopus amplexifolius

(Clasping Twisted Stalk)


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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Czech:

Čípek objímavý

Common Names in English:

Clasping Twisted Stalk, clasping leaved twisted stalk, Clasping Twistedstalk, Clasping-Leaved Twisted-Stalk, Claspleaf Twistedstalk, liverberry, Scoot Berry, Twisted Stalk, Watermelon Berry, White Mandarin, Wild Cucumber

Common Names in French:

sceau de Salomon noueux, streptope à feuilles embrassantes, streptope amplexicaule, streptope blanc

Common Names in German:

Stängelumfassender Knotenfuß, Stengelumfassender Knotenfuß

Common Names in Japanese:


Common Names in Polish:

Liczydło górskie


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Family Liliaceae

Herbs perennial , with a rhizome, bulb, or corm, rarely shrubby or treelike. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled , parallel or rarely reticulate veined. Inflorescence a raceme , panicle, spike, umbel, reduced panicle, or other, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual , rarely unisexual , actinomorphic , rarely zygomorphic; bracts present or absent; bracteoles present or absent. Perianth usually corollalike, 6-merous, rarely 4- or 8-merous, in 2 whorls; segments free (tepals) or united . Stamens 6, rarely 3, 4, or 8, inserted opposite perianth segments; filaments free or adnate to perianth, rarely connate into a corona ; anthers usually 2-loculed, basifixed or dorsifixed and versatile, introrse , latrorse , or extrorse , dehiscing usually by vertical slits. Carpels usually connate for most or all of their length , rarely only at base ; ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, 3-loculed, rarely 2- or 4-loculed, with axile placentae, or rarely 1-loculed with a parietal placenta; ovules usually anatropous . Nectaries septal, perigonal, or absent. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds with abundant endosperm and small embryo.

About 250 genera and 3500 species: worldwide, especially in temperate and subtropical regions; 57 genera (three endemic, two introduced ) and 726 species (379 endemic, 11 introduced) in China.[1]

Genus Streptopus

Herbs, perennial , rhizomatous . Stems simple to highly branched. Leaves numerous , sessile; blade elliptic to ovate , base rounded to cordate-clasping, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences 1-2-flowered, peduncle slender, adnate to stem for 1 internode and arising opposite next leaf axil , junction with pedicel abrupt or not, entire structure recurved. Flowers small, borne beneath leaves; perianth rotate or campanulate ; tepals deciduous, erect to spreading or recurved, distinct , white to greenish yellow to rose, oblanceolate to oblong ; stamens hypogynous; filaments short, broad, flat; anthers basifixed , apex minutely apiculate or with tapering, setose points , extrorse ; ovary superior, 3-locular; style slender to bulbous; stigma unlobed or 3-lobed; pedicel geniculate. Fruits baccate , orangish to dark red, ellipsoid to globose . Seeds pale yellow, elongate , grooved longitudinally. x = 8.

Species 7: n temperate North America and Eurasia .[2]

Physical Description

Species Streptopus amplexifolius

Plants from thick rhizomes. Stems freely branched, stout, 5-12 dm, often with reddish hairs basally, nodes not fringed . Leaves 5-15 × 2.5-6 cm; blade ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, base cordate-clasping, apex acuminate; peduncle: junction with pedicel abrupt , with glands indicating transition, entire structure 2-5 cm, glands short-stalked. Flowers 1-2 per axil; perianth campanulate ; tepals spreading , recurved at tips , white to greenish yellow, narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 9-15 mm; stamens unequal, outer shorter, 0.8-1 mm, inner 2-3 mm; anthers lanceolate, 3-3.5 mm, apex 1-pointed; style stout, 4-5 mm; stigma fused from base to tip, unlobed; combined peduncles and pedicels recurved, 2-5 cm, short-stalked glands indicating transition; pedicel sharply geniculate , glabrous . Berries whitish green maturing to yellowish orange or red, ellipsoid , 10-12 mm. Seeds 2.5-3 mm. 2n = 16, 32. [source]

Several poorly defined races described by N. C. Fassett (1935) as varieties based chiefly on minute difference in leaf-margin serration are not here recognized. [source]

Habit: Forb/herb

Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June. • Flower Color: yellow


Size: 12-18" tall.


Rich moist coniferous and deciduous woods ; 0--2800 m [3].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,632 meters (0 to 11,916 feet).[4]


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Duration: Perennial


Culture: Space 9-12" apart.

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Partial to Full Shade.

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)


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S. amplexifolius var. americanus Schultes • S. amplexifolius var. chalazatus Fassett; S. Amplexifolius Var. Denticulatus Fassett • S. amplexifolius var. grandiflorus Fassett • S. fassettii & Aacute;. Löve & D. Löve • Streptopus amplexifolius americanus (Schultes) á. löve & D. Löve • Tortipes amplexifolius (Linnaeus) Small • Uvularia amplexifolia L. • Uvularia amplexifolia Linnaeus


Publishing author : DC. Publication : Fl. Franc. (DC. & Lamarck), ed. 3. 3: 174 1805

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Streptopus

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 19 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

S. amplexifolius (Clasping Twisted Stalk) · S. amplexifolius (L.) DC. var. chalazatus Fassett (Tubercle Twistedstalk) · S. amplexifolius var. amplexifolius (Claspleaf Twistedstalk) · S. amplexifolius var. chalazatus (Tubercle Twistedstalk) · S. amplexifolius var. papillatus (Claspleaf Twistedstalk) · S. lanceolatus (Rose Mandarin) · S. lanceolatus (Aiton) Reveal var. longipes (Fern.) Reveal (Twistedstalk) · S. lanceolatus var. curvipes (Twistedstalk) · S. lanceolatus var. lanceolatus (Twistedstalk) · S. lanceolatus var. longipes (Twistedstalk) · S. lanceolatus var. roseus (Twistedstalk) · S. longipes (Twistedstalk) · S. oreopolus (Twistedstalk) · S. roseus var. roseus (Rosy Twistedstalk) · S. streptopoides (Small Twistedstalk) · S. streptopoides brevipes (Small Twisted Stalk) · S. streptopoides var. brevipes (Small Twistedstalk) · S. × oreopolus (Twistedstalk) · S. oreopolus (Twistedstalk)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 28, 2007:



  1. Xinqi Chen, Prof. Song-Yun Liang, Jie-mei Xu, David E. Boufford, Michael G. Gilbert, Rudolf V. Kamelin, Shoichi Kawano, Tetsuo Koyama, Elena V. Mordak, Junko Noguchi, Victor G. Soukup, Hiroshi Takahashi, Kamilla G. Tamanian, Minoru N. Tamura & Nicholas J. Turland "Liliaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 73. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at [back]
  2. Frederick H. Utech "Streptopus". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 14, 15, 51, 57, 145. Oxford University Press. Online at [back]
  3. "Streptopus amplexifolius". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 145, 146, 147. Oxford University Press. Online at [back]
  4. Mean = 853.900 meters (2,801.509 feet), Standard Deviation = 719.590 based on 784 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2015-01-30