, or less often trees
; indumentum usually with peltate scales
. Leaves alternate, stipulate
; leaf blade
usually palmately veined, entire or various lobed
. Flowers solitary, less often in small cymes or clusters
, often aggregated into terminal
or panicles, usually conspicuous
, usually bisexual
in Kydia) . Epicalyx
often present, forming an involucre around calyx, 3- to many lobed. Sepals 5, valvate
. Petals 5, free, contorted, or imbricate, basally adnate
. Stamens usually very many, filaments connate into tube; anthers
1-celled. Pollen spiny
. Ovary superior, with 2-25 carpels, often separating from one another and from axis; ovules 1 to many per locule; style as many or 2 Ã— as many as pistils, apex branched or capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp, separating into individual mericarps, rarely berrylike when mature
(Malvaviscus) ; carpels sometimes with an endoglossum (a crosswise projection from back wall of carpel to make it almost completely septate
. Seeds often reniform
, sometimes conspicuously so.
About 100 genera and ca. 1000 species: tropical and temperate regions of N and S Hemisphere; 19 genera (four introduced ) and 81 species (24 endemic, 16 introduced) in China.
Molecular studies have shown that the members of the Bombacaceae, Malvaceae, Sterculiaceae, and Tiliaceae form a very well-defined monophyletic group that is divided into ten also rather well-defined clades, only two of which correspond to the traditional families Bombacaceae and Malvaceae. Some of the remaining groups are included entirely within either of the remaining families but others cut across the traditional divide between the Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae. A majority of authors , most notably Bayer and Kubitzki (Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 5: 225-311. 2003), has favored including everything within a greatly enlarged Malvaceae, and treating the individual clades as subfamilies. The alternative view is that the individual clades should be treated as a series of ten families: Bombacaceae (Bombacoideae), Brownlowiaceae (Brownlowioideae), Byttneriaceae (Byttnerioideae), Durionaceae (Durionoideae), Helicteraceae (Helicteroideae), Malvaceae (Malvoideae), Pentapetaceae (Dombeyoideae), Sparrmanniaceae (Grewioideae), Sterculiaceae (Sterculioideae), and Tiliaceae (Tilioideae) (Cheek in Heywood et al. , Fl. Pl. Fam. World. 201-202. 2007) . For the present treatment, we prefer to retain the familiar, traditional four families, so as to maintain continuity with the treatments in FRPS, and to await a consensus on the two alternative strategies for dealing with the very widely accepted clades.
The traditional Malvaceae coincides exactly with one of the major clades. The only possible problem is the relationship with the Bombacaceae, which also has primarily 1-loculed anthers, and some authorities have suggested that the Bombacaceae should be included within the Malvaceae.
Members of the Malvaceae are important as fiber crops (particularly cotton, Gossypium) . Young leaves of many species can be used as vegetables, and species of Abelmoschus and Hibiscus are grown as minor food crops. Many species have attractive flowers and an ever-increasing selection is grown as ornamentals . Several have been cultivated for a very long time, particularly species of Hibiscus, and some of these are not known in the wild.
. Leaves simple
, entire or palmately lobed
, rarely palmately compound
entire or dentate
. Inflorescence usually axillary
, usually paniculate
, rarely racemose. Flowers unisexual
. Calyx 5-lobed or 5-partite. Petals absent. Male flowers: anthers
clustered at top of androgynophore
, enclosing undeveloped
carpels. Female flowers: androgynophore very short, staminodes at top of androgynophore in whorl around base
of carpels. Carpels 5; ovules 2 to many per carpel; styles connate
at base; stigmas as many as carpels, free
. Fruit a group of follicles, usually leathery, less often woody, dehiscent
. Seeds 1 to many per follicle, usually with endosperm.
Between 100 and 150 species: tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres, most abundant in Asian tropics; 26 species (14 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
The fruits of nine species and male and/or female flowers of a further four species have not been recorded, indicating that the Chinese members of this genus require much more study in the field .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Malvanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Sterculia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 12 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. africana (African Star Chestnut) · S. apetala (Panama Tree) · S. ceramica (Fairchild's Sterculia) · S. colorata (Bonfire Tree) · S. foetida (Hazel Sterculia) · S. oblonga (Yellow Sterculia) · S. rhinopetala (Brown Sterculia) · S. rogersii (Ulumbu Tree) · S. setigera (Sterculia) · S. tragacantha (Gum Tragacanth) · S. urens (Sterculia) · S. verticillata (Cola)
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- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 378, p. 580.
- Hortus suburbanus Calcuttensis; A catalogue of the plants which have been cultivated in the Hon. East India Company's botanical garden, Calcutta, and in the Serampore botanical garden. By the late J. O. Voigt, printed under the superintendence of W. Griffith. Calcutta, Bishop's College Press, 1845. url p. 104.
- In the Andamans and Nicobars; the narrative of a cruise in the schooner "Terrapin", with notices of the islands, their fauna, ethnology, etc., by C. Boden Kloss. .. London: J. Murray, 1903. url p. 336.
- Indian trees: an account of trees, shrubs, woody climbers, bamboos, and palms indigenous or commonly cultivated in the British Indian empire / London: A. Constable, 1906. url p. 84.
- Natural science: a monthly review of scientific progress. London [etc.]: Macmillan and Company [etc.], [1892-1899] url p. 194.
- Preliminary report on the forest and other vegetation of Pegu. CalcuttaC.B. Lewis, Baptist Mission Press1875 url p. xxii.
- The Ecology of arboreal folivores: a symposium held at the Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, May 29-31, 1975 / Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978. url p. 451, p. 453.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 359.
- The miscellaneous botanical works of Robert Brown vol. II, containing III. systematic memoirs, and IV. contributions to systematic works. London: Published for the Ray Society by R. Hardwicke, 1867. url .
- Feng Kuo-mei. 1984. Malvaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 1-102.
- Hsue Hsiang-hao. 1984. Sterculiaceae. In: Feng Kuo-mei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(2): 112-189.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 11, 2012.
- Chua, L.S.L. 1998. Sterculia parviflora. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 05February2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 17, 2008:
- Herbier de la Guyane
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3466203
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15871051
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:1130589-2
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 825385-1
- IUCN ID: 243822
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1021959
- Ya Tang, Michael G. Gilbert & Laurence J. Dorr "Malvaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 240, 264,299, 302. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Sterculia". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 302, 303,327. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Chua, L.S.L. 1998. Sterculia parviflora. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 February 2012. [back]