Common Names in English:
or epiphytic. Stems jointed
, flattened, or fluted
, mostly leafless and variously spiny
. Leaves alternate, flat or subulate
to terete, vestigial, or entirely absent; spines, glochids (easily detached, small, bristlelike spines), and flowers always arising from cushionlike, axillary
areoles (modified short shoots
) . Flowers solitary, sessile, rarely clustered and stalked
(in Pereskia), bisexual
, rarely unisexual
or occasionally zygomorphic. Receptacle tube
(hypanthium or perianth tube) absent or short to elongate
, naked or invested with leaflike bracts, scales
, areoles, and hairs
, or spines; perianth segments usually numerous
, in a sepaloid
series. Stamens numerous, variously inserted
and tube; anthers
2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary (pericarpel) inferior, rarely superior, 1-loculed, with 3 to many parietal
(rarely basal) placentas; ovules usually numerous; style 1; stigmas 2 to numerous, papillate
, rarely 2-fid. Fruit juicy or dry, naked, scaly
, or spiny, indehiscent or dehiscent
, when juicy then pulp derived from often deliquescent funicles
(except in Pereskia) . Seeds usually numerous, often arillate
; embryo curved
or rarely straight; endosperm present or absent; cotyledons reduced or vestigial, rarely leaflike.
About 110 genera and more than 1000 species: temperate and tropical America; Rhipsalis baccifera (J. S. Mueller) Stearn native in tropical Africa, Madagascar, Comoros, Mascarenes, and Sri Lanka; some species of other genera now extensively naturalized in the Old World through human agency; more than 60 genera and 600 species cultivated as ornamentals or hedges in China, of which four genera and seven species more or less naturalized.
, or procumbent
, mostly branched from base
. Roots adventitious if plant procumbent. Stems unsegmented
, often more narrow at branch
bases and where showing growth increments
, green to bluish green [or whitish from surface wax or purple tinged from pigment], columnar
, [50-]100-500+ × [5-](9-) 11-18[-20] cm; ribs
nearly flat to sinusoidal or strongly tuberculate
, with transverse
folds between areoles or not; areoles 0.5-2.5 cm apart, circular to horizontally elliptic
, young hairs
whitish or tan to reddish brown, aging
darker; areolar glands
present or absent; cortex mucilaginous
or not, mucilage throughout and slippery or restricted
in outer cortex, green to white or yellowish; pith
mucilaginous or not, 1-8 cm wide. Spines to 28 per areole, hemispherically arranged, initially rose to magenta, becoming darker or fading to grayish white, relatively thin and brittle to stout and very hard; radial
spines to 3.5 cm; central spines usually weakly defined or absent, sometimes broad and downward pointing, to 7.5 cm. Flowers diurnal
only once on areole [or not], terminal
]; flower tubes2-11 cm; outer tepals with dark green to purplish centers but light margins, margins entire; inner tepals white to rose-red [or yellow]; ovary globose
to barrel-shaped, similar to locule shape
, reddish or green with red tips
, small, triangular; hairs and spines often present; stigma lobes
or exserted; nectar chamber open. Fruits indehiscent or sometimes splitting
irregularly, dark red to purplish green or green, spheric [to ovoid
], 30-100 mm, fleshy
to juicy [or somewhat dry], bearing deciduous spine clusters; pulp red, special pigment cells present; floral
remnant persistent or deciduous. Seeds brownish black or black, oblong
to subspheric with oblique
, 0.7-3 mm, dull
or rarely glossy; testa cells
or nearly flat, with prominent
to faint, raised waxy striations
or not. x = 11.
Species ca. 20: s Arizona, Mexico, West Indies, coastal Central America, n South America, cultivated and naturalized elsewhere.
During the nineteenth century, the ribbed columnar cacti, numbering in the hundreds , were generally classified as species of Cereus. In the early twentieth century, however, Cereus, in the broadest sense, was subdivided into many smaller and more homogeneous units , initially by N. L. Britton and J. N. Rose (1909, 1919-1923). The phylogenetic relationships of North American columnar species were clarified by studies of silica bodies in the epidermis and hypodermis covering the stems of certain Mexican species, distinctive pigment cells, called pearl cells, in the fruit pulp, and sugar-bearing oleanane triterpenes in stem tissues (A. C. Gibson and K . E. Horak 1978). Species possessing all three derived characters were removed from Lemaireocereus, Machaerocereus, Rathbunia, Hertrichocereus, Ritterocereus, and Marshallocereus and placed into the genus Stenocereus, which was further emended by removing species without the shared characters.
Several of the Central American species assigned to Stenocereus by E. F. Anderson (2001) are too poorly studied to know whether or not they have the diagnostic characters for the genus. A carefully done DNA phylogeny for all taxa with possible inclusion in Stenocereus is needed, especially to define more precisely the phylogenetic lineages and patterns of speciation (R. S. Wallace and A. C. Gibson 2002).
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May. • Flower Color: near white, pale pink, white
Size: 10-12' tall.
Culture: Space 10-12' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Cactaceae () - Durande, 1782 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - cactus
- Suborder: Portulacineae ()
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
A tentatively accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database.
Members of the genus Stenocereus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 25 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. alamosensis (Cina) · S. aragonii (Stenocereus) · S. beneckei (Stenocereus) · S. chacalapensis (Stenocereus) · S. chrysocarpus (Stenocereus) · S. eichlamii (Guanocal) · S. ercua (Caterpillar Cactus) · S. eruca (Creeping Devil) · S. fimbriatus (Spanish Stenocereus) · S. fricii (Pitayo De Aguas) · S. griseus (Mexican Organ Pipe) · S. gummosus (Dagger Cactus) · S. kerberi (Sina) · S. laevigatus (Stenocereus) · S. martinezii (Pitahayo) · S. montanus (Mountain Organ Pipe) · S. pruinosis (Gray Ghost Organ Pipe) · S. pruinosus (Stenocereus) · S. queretaroensis (Pitahaya De Queretaro) · S. quevedonis (Pitire) · S. standleyi (Pitaya) · S. stellatus (Pitaya) · S. thurberi (Mehuele) · S. treleasei (Tunillo) · S. yunckeri (Stenocereus)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 333, p. 329.
- .Li Zhenyu. 1999. Cactaceae. In: Ku Tsuechih, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(1): 272-285.
- Cornejo, D. O. and B. B. Simpson. 1997. Analysis of form and function in North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereae). Amer. J. Bot. 84: 1482-1501.
- Gibson, A. C. 1990. The systematics and evolution of subtribe Stenocereinae. 8. Organ pipe cactus and its closest relatives. Cact. Succ. J. (Los Angeles) 62: 13-24.
- Gibson, A. C. 1988. The systematics and evolution of subtribe Stenocereinae. 1. Composition and definition of the subtribe. Cact. Succ. J. (Los Angeles) 60: 11-16.
- Gibson, A. C. and K. E. Horak. 1978. Systematic anatomy and phylogeny of Mexican columnar cacti. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 999-1057.
- Parker, K. C. 1987. Seedcrop characteristics and minimum reproductive size of organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi) in southern Arizona. Madroño 34: 294-303.
- Parker, K. C. 1987b. Site-related demographic patterns of organ pipe cactus populations in southern Arizona. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114: 149-155.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 07, 2007:
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5766501
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15310552
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:138593-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 894513
- Zhen-yu Li & Nigel P. Taylor "Cactaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 209. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Arthur C. Gibson "Stenocereus". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 97, 186, 187,. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]