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Spinacia oleracea

(Spinach)

Overview

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Interesting Facts

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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Albanian:

Spinaqi

Common Names in Amharic:

ቆስጣ

Common Names in Arabic:

Isfanahk, Ispanahk, Sabanekh (Egypt), سبانخ

Common Names in Azerbaijani:

Dirrik ispanağı

Common Names in Basque:

Ziazerba

Common Names in Burmese:

ဟင်းနုနွယ်

Common Names in Catalan, Valencian:

Espinac

Common Names in Chinese:

Bo Cai, 菠菜

Common Names in Croatian:

Goli Spinat, Špinat

Common Names in Danish:

Spinat

Common Names in Dutch:

Spinazie

Common Names in English:

Spinach, Cultivated Spinach, English spinach

Common Names in Esperanto:

Spinaco

Common Names in Finnish:

Pinaatti

Common Names in French:

épinard, épinard Potager, Epinard

Common Names in German:

Echter Spinat, Spinat

Common Names in Greek:

Spanaki

Common Names in Greek (modern):

Σπανάκι

Common Names in Haitian, Haitian Creole:

Epina

Common Names in Hebrew:

Tered, Tered Hagina

Common Names in Hebrew (modern):

תרד

Common Names in Hindi:

Paalak, Pinni, पालक

Common Names in Hungarian:

Paraj, Spenót, Spenót

Common Names in Icelandic:

Spínat

Common Names in Ido:

Spinato

Common Names in India:

Pinni

Common Names in Indonesian:

Horenso

Common Names in Italian:

Spinacio, Spinacio Comune

Common Names in Japanese:

Horenso, Hourensou, ホウレンソウ

Common Names in Kinyarwanda:

Epinari

Common Names in Korean:

Shi Geum Chi (Shi Gum Chi), Sigmchi, 시금치

Common Names in Kurdish:

Siyale

Common Names in Latvian:

Spināti

Common Names in Lithuanian:

Daržinis špinatas

Common Names in Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch:

Päinetsch

Common Names in Malay:

Bayam (Spinacia)

Common Names in Malayalam:

ചീര

Common Names in Marathi (Marāṭhī):

पालक

Common Names in Navajo, Navaho:

Waaʼ (dííshjį́ ááłjiní)

Common Names in Nepali:

पालुङ्गो

Common Names in Norwegian:

Spinat

Common Names in Ossetian, Ossetic:

Голмандзы

Common Names in Persian:

Fu-Chu-Su, Ispany

Common Names in Persian (Farsi):

اسفناج

Common Names in Polish:

Szpinak Warzywny

Common Names in Portuguese:

Acelga, Espinaca, Espinafré, Espinafré De Holanda, Espinafre

Common Names in Romanian:

Spanac

Common Names in Russian:

Shpinat Ogorodnyi, špinat Ogorodnyj, шпинат огородный

Common Names in Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic:

Bloinigean gàrraidh

Common Names in Serbian:

Спанаћ

Common Names in Spanish:

Espinaca, Espinaca Holandesa

Common Names in Swedish:

Spenat

Common Names in Telugu:

పాల కూర

Common Names in Turkish:

Ispanak

Common Names in Ukrainian:

Шпинат городній

Common Names in Urdu:

Paalak

Common Names in Vietnamese:

Rau chân vịt

Description

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Family Amaranthaceae

Herbs, clambering subshrubs , shrubs , or lianas. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate . Flowers small, bisexual or unisexual , or sterile and reduced, subtended by 1 membranous bract and 2 bracteoles, solitary or aggregated in cymes. Inflorescences elongated or condensed spikes (heads ), racemes , or thyrsoid structures of varying complexity. Bracteoles membranous or scarious . Tepals 3-5, membranous, scarious or subleathery, 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7(-23) -veined. Stamens as many as tepals and opposite these, rarely fewer than tepals; filaments free , united into a cup at base or ± entirely into a tube , filament lobes present or absent, pseudostaminodes present or absent; anthers (1- or) 2-loculed, dorsifixed , introrsely dehiscent . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules 1 to many; style persistent , short and indistinct or long and slender; stigma capitate, penicillate , 2-lobed or forming 2 filiform branches. Fruit a dry utricle or a fleshy capsule, indehiscent, irregularly bursting, or circumscissile. Seeds lenticular , reniform , subglobose, or shortly cylindric , smooth or verruculose .

About 70 genera and 900 species: worldwide; 15 genera (one introduced ) and 44 species (three endemic, 14 introduced) in China.

Morphology of the androecium, perianth (tepals), and the inflorescence has traditionally been used to circumscribe genera and tribes . Pseudostaminodia are interstaminal appendages with variously shaped apices. Filament appendages are the lateral appendages of filaments (one on each side) . The basic structure of the inflorescence is the cyme (branchlets arising from the bracteole axils, the bracteoles serving as bracts for upper flowers), which can be reduced to one flower with two bracteoles and a bract. Units of dispersal vary considerably (capsules opening with lower part persistent, flower and bracteoles falling together, or cymose partial inflorescences breaking off above bract) and can be characteristic for genera. Several genera possess long trichomes serving dispersal at the base of the tepals.[1]

Genus Spinacia

Herbs, annual or biennial, monoecious, glabrous . Stems erect , not branched, not jointed , not armed , not fleshy . Leaves basal or alternate, petiolate ; blade triangular-hastate to ovate , sometimes with elongated lobes , margins entire or dentate , apex acute. Inflorescences: pistillate flowers sessile in leaf axils ; staminate flowers in dense terminal spikes. Flowers unisexual , rarely bisexual ; staminate flowers with perianth segments 4-5, stamens 4-5; pistillate flowers enclosed by 2 accrescent or connate bracts, perianth absent, stigmas 4-5. Fruiting structures enlarged and hardened bracteoles enclosing achenes; pericarp adherent . Seeds vertical , seed coat dark, spiny or smooth ; hardened bracteoles serving as seed coat; embryo annular ; perisperm copious . x = 6.

Species 3: introduced ; Eurasia .

The chromosome base number of six is unusual in the Chenopodiaceae. B . L. Turner (1994b) suggested that members with a base of nine, the most common number in the family , may be derived.[2]

Physical Description

Species Spinacia oleracea

Stems leafy, 1-5(-10) dm. Leaves gradually becoming smaller distally; blade oblong , base cuneate. Bracteoles orbicular-obovate, usually wider than long, apex with divergent spine or smooth . 2n = 12. [source]

Reports of populations in Canada and inland areas of the United States appear to be from gardens where the plants do not persist without benefit of cultivation. [source]

Habit: Forb/herb

Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none

Size/Age/Growth

Size: 18-24" tall.

Habitat

Waste areas; 0-1500 m [3].

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,417 meters (0 to 7,930 feet).[4]

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Annual

Growth

Culture: Space 18-24" apart.

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)

Taxonomy

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Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Spinacia

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 95 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

S. oleracea (Spinach) · S. oleracea '7-Green' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Amazon' (Spinach 'amazon') · S. oleracea 'America' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Andhalu' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Avenger' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Avon' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bahamas' (Spinach 'bahamas') · S. oleracea 'Barbados' (Spinach 'barbados') · S. oleracea 'Bizet' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Blackbird' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bloomsdale' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bolero' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bordeaux' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bossanova' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Catalina' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Cherokee' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Correnta' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Cxf 94684' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Cypress' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Dolphin Rz' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Emilia' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Esa661070' (Spinach 'esa661070') · S. oleracea 'Esmeralda' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Falcon' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Fidalgo' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Fiorano' (Spinach 'fiorano') · S. oleracea 'Four Season' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Galaxy' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Giant Nobel' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Giant Winter' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Green Magic' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Hector' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Hellcat' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Industra' (Spinach 'industra') · S. oleracea 'Interceptor' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Lorelay' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Matador' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Melody' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Merlo Nero' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Mig' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Mikado' (Spinach 'mikado') · S. oleracea 'Missouri' (Spinach 'missouri') · S. oleracea 'Monstrueux De Viroflay' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Nadong' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Okame' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Olympia' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Orai - Alrite' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Oriental Giant' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Padre' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Palco' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Polka' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Polydane' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Razzle Dazzle' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Regiment' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Rhino' (Spinach 'rhino') · S. oleracea 'Ricco Di Asti' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Sais #7' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Samish' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Scarlet' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Scenic' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Seb661076' (Spinach 'seb661076') · S. oleracea 'Seychelles' (Spinach 'seychelles') · S. oleracea 'Skookum' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Sp870' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Space' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spain' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spinnaker' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spinner' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spokane' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Sporter' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spring-Summer' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Springer' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Springfield' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Summer Perfection' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Tetona' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Tigercat' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Tirza' (Spinach 'tirza') · S. oleracea 'Tornado' (Spinach 'tornado') · S. oleracea 'Tyee' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 12' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 131' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 144' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 151' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 277' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Vancouver' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Van Gogh' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Verdi' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Viking' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Viroflay' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Vivos' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Whale' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Winter Bloomsdale' (Spinach) · S. sativus 'Seven R' (Spinach) · S. turkestanica (Wild Spinach)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Bojian Bao, Thomas Borsch & Steven E. Clemants "Amaranthaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 415. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. Leila M. Shultz "Spinacia". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 260, 302. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. "Spinacia oleracea". in Flora of North America Vol. 4 Page 259, 302. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  4. Mean = 430.910 meters (1,413.747 feet), Standard Deviation = 529.300 based on 447 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-20