- Spinach is an important and widely cultivated crop of unknown origin , though known from the Mediterranean region since ancient times. The plant is prized as a rich source of vitamins, calcium, iron, and antioxidant carotenoids, but, if ingested in excessive amounts, the high concentration of oxalates in the leaves can be toxic by inhibiting the absorption of calcium. The cultivated form named var. oleracea has spiny seeds and tends to be more cold hardy than var. inermis, the smooth-seeded variety that is more tolerant of warm weather. [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Arabic:
Isfanahk, Ispanahk, Sabanekh (Egypt)
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Croatian:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Spinach, Cultivated Spinach
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
épinard, épinard Potager, Epinard
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Greek:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Tered, Tered Hagina
Common Names in Hindi:
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in India:
Common Names in Italian:
Spinacio, Spinacio Comune
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Korean:
Shi Geum Chi (Shi Gum Chi), Sigmchi
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Persian:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Acelga, Espinaca, Espinafré, Espinafré De Holanda, Espinafre
Common Names in Russian:
Shpinat Ogorodnyi, špinat Ogorodnyj, шпинат огородный
Common Names in Spanish:
Espinaca, Espinaca Holandesa
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Urdu:
, or lianas. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate
. Flowers small, bisexual
, or sterile
and reduced, subtended by 1 membranous bract and 2 bracteoles, solitary or aggregated in cymes. Inflorescences elongated or condensed spikes (heads
, or thyrsoid
structures of varying complexity. Bracteoles membranous or scarious
. Tepals 3-5, membranous, scarious or subleathery, 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7(-23) -veined. Stamens as many as tepals and opposite these, rarely fewer than tepals; filaments
into a cup
or ± entirely into a tube
, filament lobes present or absent, pseudostaminodes present or absent; anthers
(1- or) 2-loculed, dorsifixed
, introrsely dehiscent
. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules 1 to many; style persistent
, short and indistinct or long and slender; stigma capitate, penicillate
, 2-lobed or forming 2 filiform
branches. Fruit a dry utricle or a fleshy
capsule, indehiscent, irregularly bursting, or circumscissile. Seeds lenticular
, subglobose, or shortly cylindric
About 70 genera and 900 species: worldwide; 15 genera (one introduced ) and 44 species (three endemic, 14 introduced) in China.
Morphology of the androecium, perianth (tepals), and the inflorescence has traditionally been used to circumscribe genera and tribes . Pseudostaminodia are interstaminal appendages with variously shaped apices. Filament appendages are the lateral appendages of filaments (one on each side) . The basic structure of the inflorescence is the cyme (branchlets arising from the bracteole axils, the bracteoles serving as bracts for upper flowers), which can be reduced to one flower with two bracteoles and a bract. Units of dispersal vary considerably (capsules opening with lower part persistent, flower and bracteoles falling together, or cymose partial inflorescences breaking off above bract) and can be characteristic for genera. Several genera possess long trichomes serving dispersal at the base of the tepals.
or biennial, monoecious, glabrous
. Stems erect
, not branched, not jointed
, not armed
, not fleshy
. Leaves basal or alternate, petiolate
triangular-hastate to ovate
, sometimes with elongated lobes
entire or dentate
, apex acute. Inflorescences: pistillate
flowers sessile in leaf axils
; staminate flowers
in dense terminal
spikes. Flowers unisexual
, rarely bisexual
; staminate flowers with perianth segments 4-5, stamens 4-5; pistillate flowers enclosed by 2 accrescent
bracts, perianth absent, stigmas 4-5. Fruiting structures enlarged and hardened bracteoles enclosing achenes; pericarp adherent
. Seeds vertical
, seed coat
; hardened bracteoles serving as seed coat; embryo annular
. x = 6.
Species 3: introduced ; Eurasia .
The chromosome base number of six is unusual in the Chenopodiaceae. B . L. Turner (1994b) suggested that members with a base of nine, the most common number in the family , may be derived.
Species Spinacia oleracea
Stems leafy, 1-5(-10) dm. Leaves gradually becoming
smaller distally; blade
cuneate. Bracteoles orbicular-obovate,
usually wider than long, apex with divergent spine or smooth
= 12. [source]
Reports of populations in Canada and inland areas of the United States appear to be from gardens where the plants do not persist without benefit of cultivation. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: 18-24" tall.
Waste areas; 0-1500 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,417 meters (0 to 7,930 feet).
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Amaranthaceae () - Adanson, 1763 ex A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - amaranthes, pigweed
- Suborder: Chenopodiineae ()
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Caryophyllanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Spinacia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 95 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. oleracea (Spinach) · S. oleracea '7-Green' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Amazon' (Spinach 'amazon') · S. oleracea 'America' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Andhalu' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Avenger' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Avon' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bahamas' (Spinach 'bahamas') · S. oleracea 'Barbados' (Spinach 'barbados') · S. oleracea 'Bizet' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Blackbird' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bloomsdale' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bolero' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bordeaux' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Bossanova' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Catalina' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Cherokee' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Correnta' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Cxf 94684' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Cypress' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Dolphin Rz' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Emilia' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Esa661070' (Spinach 'esa661070') · S. oleracea 'Esmeralda' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Falcon' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Fidalgo' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Fiorano' (Spinach 'fiorano') · S. oleracea 'Four Season' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Galaxy' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Giant Nobel' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Giant Winter' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Green Magic' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Hector' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Hellcat' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Industra' (Spinach 'industra') · S. oleracea 'Interceptor' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Lorelay' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Matador' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Melody' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Merlo Nero' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Mig' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Mikado' (Spinach 'mikado') · S. oleracea 'Missouri' (Spinach 'missouri') · S. oleracea 'Monstrueux De Viroflay' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Nadong' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Okame' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Olympia' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Orai - Alrite' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Oriental Giant' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Padre' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Palco' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Polka' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Polydane' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Razzle Dazzle' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Regiment' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Rhino' (Spinach 'rhino') · S. oleracea 'Ricco Di Asti' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Sais #7' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Samish' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Scarlet' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Scenic' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Seb661076' (Spinach 'seb661076') · S. oleracea 'Seychelles' (Spinach 'seychelles') · S. oleracea 'Skookum' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Sp870' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Space' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spain' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spinnaker' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spinner' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spokane' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Sporter' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Spring-Summer' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Springer' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Springfield' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Summer Perfection' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Tetona' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Tigercat' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Tirza' (Spinach 'tirza') · S. oleracea 'Tornado' (Spinach 'tornado') · S. oleracea 'Tyee' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 12' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 131' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 144' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 151' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Unipack 277' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Vancouver' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Van Gogh' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Verdi' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Viking' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Viroflay' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Vivos' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Whale' (Spinach) · S. oleracea 'Winter Bloomsdale' (Spinach) · S. sativus 'Seven R' (Spinach) · S. turkestanica (Wild Spinach)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
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- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
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- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
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- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
- , IPK Genebank
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2646884
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-20709
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:167384-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 35256
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 20709
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SPOL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 63787
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- Mean = 430.910 meters (1,413.747 feet), Standard Deviation = 529.300 based on 447 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]