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Spathoglottis plicata

(Boat Orchid)

Overview

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Common Names

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Common Names in English:

Boat Orchid, Spathoglottis plicata Orchid, Garden Orchid, Ground Orchid, Philippine Ground Orchid, Phillippine Orchid

Description

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Family Orchidaceae

Herbs or rarely vines , perennial , rarely annual , strongly mycotrophic, epiphytic, terrestrial , lithophytic, or rarely aquatic or subterranean , usually green and photosynthetic, some without chlorophyll and saprophytic . Roots subterranean or aerial , tuberoid or stolonoid, usually with spongy , multilayered velamen. Stems erect or pendent or modified into creeping rhizomes, simple or sympodially or monopodially branched, delicate to stout, or thickened as corms or pseudobulbs , or greatly reduced, sometimes proliferous (especially diverse in sympodial orchids) . Leaves solitary, several, or reduced to scales , basal or cauline, alternate, distichous, or sometimes opposite or whorled , either convolute or duplicate , simple, sessile or petiolate ; stipules absent; blade articulate or not, plicate or conduplicate , cylindric , triangular, or laterally flattened, margins entire. Inflorescences terminal or lateral , racemes , spikes, panicles, or rarely cymose , erect or variously pendent, 1 many-flowered, lax or dense, flowering successively or simultaneously. Flowers bisexual [rarely unisexual ], epigynous , resupinate or not, pedicellate or sessile, 3-merous, usually bilaterally symmetric [rarely nearly radially symmetric], with abscission layer between pedicel and peduncle, rarely between ovary and perianth or ovary and pedicel; perianth of 6 tepals in 2 whorls, all petaloid or sepals sometimes greener and more foliaceous in texture ; sepals alike or not, lateral sepals often connate (forming synsepal), or all 3 sepals variously connate and/or adnate or distinct and/or free ; petals 3, median petal modified as lip, commonly larger or differing in form and color, lateral petals commonly but not always similar to sepals; nectaries of various sorts; extrafloral nectaries sometimes present on pedicels, bracts, or leaf sheaths ; stamens usually 1 2( 3, if 3 the 3d modified into sterile staminode), all on side opposite lip, fully or partially adnate to style, forming column; pollen grains in monads or tetrads , usually in 2 8 pollinia, sometimes subdivided into small packets, rarely granular , sometimes pollinia with caudicles and/or stipes; gynoecium 3-carpellate, connate, forming compound , inferior, 1- or 3-locular ovary; style variously adnate to filaments ; stigmas usually 3-lobed, concave to convex , part of median stigma lobe modified into rostellum , often separating anther from fertile portions of stigma, commonly preventing or in some cases facilitating self-pollination ; ovules numerous , anatropous , minute. Fruits capsules, opening (dehiscing) by longitudinal slits, rarely fleshy and indehiscent berries . Seeds numerous (millions in some species), minute; endosperm absent.

Genera ca. 800, species 22,000 35,000 (701 genera, 208 species in the flora ; 1 genus, 6 species introduced) : worldwide except Antarctica, most diverse in tropical forests .

The overall count for orchid genera in the flora includes Spathoglottis plicata Blume, which was recently reported from Palm Beach County, Florida. The plants , known locally since 1982, are apparently widely naturalized in old shellpits. The number of species in the flora includes one newly recognized species in Habenaria that is morphologically described, but not fully treated here. Orchidaceae are by far the largest and most diverse monocot family and rank among the largest families of flowering plants. An accurate account of the number of genera and species has eluded orchid scientists, and species counts published in the last 20 years range from 15,000 to 35,000. New species are continually being described. In addition, numerous natural and artificial hybrids exist.

Although orchids are important in horticulture , most of the plants traded in the national and international market belong to a small number of species and their hybrids in only a few genera; the majority of orchids are not commonly cultivated. Few orchids are economically important outside the horticultural trade: the fruits of several species of Vanilla are the source of the spice vanilla, and the dry roots of some species of Dactylorhiza, Eulophia, and Orchis are made into salep, a flour consumed in northern Africa, the Middle East (especially Turkey), and Asia. Some species are locally used for medicinal purposes; the mucilage from pseudobulbs of several species is sometimes used as glue; and in the Far East the stems of some species of Dendrobium are split into strips used to weave handicrafts. A few orchids have been found to cause contact dermatitis (e.g. , Cypripedium reginae) .

Orchids range vegetatively from Lilliputian plants a few millimeters long (Bulbophyllum Thouars and Platystele Schlechter) to gigantic clusters weighing several hundred kilograms (Grammatophyllum Blume) to some as much as 13.4 meters in height (Sobralia altissima D. E. Bennett & Christenson, a recently described species from Peru) . Likewise, flowers vary in size from less than 1 mm and barely visible to the naked eye (Platystele Garay), to 15 20 cm diameter (some Paphiopedilum Pfitzer, Phragmipedium Rolfe, and Cattleya Lindley spp. ), and ultimately to 76 cm [Phragmipedium caudatum (Lindley) Rolfe]. Weight can vary from a fraction of a gram (many Pleurothallus R. Brown spp.) to nearly 100 grams (Coryanthes Hooker spp.) . Their fragrances vary from delightful (Cattleya Lindley) to repulsive and unbearable (in some species of Bulbophyllum Thouars) . The plants colonize habitats ranging from some of the driest and hottest places on earth to the wettest and coolest, literally occurring from polar regions to the equator. Within the monocots, the most important diagnostic features of Orchidaceae are reduction of adaxial stamens, fusion of the remaining stamens to the gynoecium forming the column, aggregation of pollen into compact pollinia (present elsewhere only in the dicots , in Asclepiadaceae), differentiation of the median petal into the lip, a sometimes complex organ, and the exceedingly small size of the seed, which lacks endosperm. Among other distinguishing characteristics: pollen in the pollinia is usually not available as a nutrient-source (Cleistes Richard ex Lindley being a notable exception), and the often complex interaction with pollinators culminates in the phenomenon of pseudocopulation in several genera (e.g., Ophrys Linnaeus, Caladenia R. Brown sect. Calonema, Drakaea Lindley) . In the latter process , the flower mimics the appearance , the smell, and often the movements of a female wasp, attracting a male of a suitable species that tries to copulate with the flower. It usually only succeeds in becoming attached to a pollinium , which will then be transferred if the male tries to copulate with another flower.

Roots of orchids may be covered with velamen, spongy layers derived from the epidermis ; fleshy thickenings of roots are tuberoids (tubers being restricted to stems) . Stems may be swollen or thickened, underground corms or aerial pseudobulbs. Flowers are often resupinate: the lip (modified median petal) is  lowermost,  usually as a result of the pedicel being twisted or bent in its development by 180°. Pedicellate ovary, usually used in reference to length , refers to the combined pedicel and ovary. Flowers are not always borne on pedicels; when they are, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a slender ovary and the pedicel. Consequently, because of their slender ovaries, flowers of a  racemose spike  appear to be pedicellate even though they are sessile, while a  spicate raceme  has pedicels so short that they appear to be absent. Orchid flowers often have a modified median sepal, the dorsal sepal. Sepals coalescing at their tips form a synsepal. The middle portion of the upper (adaxial) face of the lip is the disc: it may be a thickened callus and may bear hairs , papillae, or other ornamentation. In orchids the style, stigmas, filaments, and one or more anthers are united to form a column; appendages projecting laterally from the stigma are column wings; the lip may be attached to the protrusion at the base of the column to form a column foot ; lateral sepals that are also attached to the foot form a mentum (chin) . In most orchids the column bears a single anther at its apex; the clinandrium is the cavity within which the anther is borne or embedded . Pollen is borne in discrete masses (pollinia) . Genera with mealy (sectile) pollinia may have pollinia within the anther tapering into a caudicle (stalk ), which is attached to a sticky viscidium . Those with waxy pollinia have pollinia attached to one or two stipes (of stigmatic origin and formed outside the anther), which in turn are attached to a viscidium. The various aggregations of pollinia, caudicles, stipes, and viscidium form a pollinarium , the pollination unit carried by pollinators. The median stigma lobe may have a slender extension or little beak (rostellum), which aids in gluing the pollinarium to the pollinator.[1]

Physical Description

Habit: Forb/herb

Flowers: Bloom Period: blooms repeatedly • Flower Color: magenta

Size/Age/Growth

Size: 12-18" tall.

Biology

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Reproduction

Duration: Perennial

Growth

Culture: Space 3-6" apart.

Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 11. (map)

Taxonomy

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Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 11-Nov-2003

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Spathoglottis

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 123 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

S. (Spathoglottis Orchid) · S. affinis (Spathoglottis Affinis Orchid) · S. affinis 'Yellow Shades' (Ground Orchid) · S. Akala (Spathoglottis Akala Orchid) · S. Aloha (Spathoglottis Aloha Orchid) · S. Amg Sumalin (Spathoglottis Amg Sumalin Orchid) · S. Angelina (Spathoglottis Angelina Orchid) · S. Anuenue (Spathoglottis Anuenue Orchid) · S. aurea (Spathoglottis Aurea Orchid) · S. Aureo-vieillardii (Spathoglottis Aureo-Vieillardii Orchid) · S. Bill Southwood (Spathoglottis Bill Southwood Orchid) · S. Blushed Yellow (Spathoglottis Blushed Yellow Orchid) · S. bulbosa (Spathoglottis Bulbosa Orchid) · S. Burleigh Gold (Spathoglottis Burleigh Gold Orchid) · S. Caity-Brook (Spathoglottis Caity-Brook Orchid) · S. chrysantha (Spathoglottis Chrysantha Orchid) · S. chrysodorus (Spathoglottis Chrysodorus Orchid) · S. Chrysops (Spathoglottis Chrysops Orchid) · S. Colmanii (Spathoglottis Colmanii Orchid) · S. Columbine (Spathoglottis Columbine Orchid) · S. Diosdado Pangan-Macapagal (Spathoglottis Diosdado Pangan-Macapagal Orchid) · S. Doctor Yeoh (Spathoglottis Doctor Yeoh Orchid) · S. Dora Martin (Spathoglottis Dora Martin Orchid) · S. Dorothy Warne (Spathoglottis Dorothy Warne Orchid) · S. Dwarf Legion (Spathoglottis Dwarf Legion Orchid) · S. eburnea (Spathoglottis Eburnea Orchid) · S. Echo (Spathoglottis Echo Orchid) · S. Edinensis (Spathoglottis Edinensis Orchid) · S. Elisabeth Catherina (Spathoglottis Elisabeth Catherina Orchid) · S. elmeri (Elmer's Ground Orchid) · S. Firefly (Spathoglottis Firefly Orchid) · S. Florida (Spathoglottis Florida Orchid) · S. fortunei (Spathoglottis Fortunei Orchid) · S. Freckle Face (Spathoglottis Freckle Face Orchid) · S. Garden City (Spathoglottis Garden City Orchid) · S. Golden Gift (Spathoglottis Golden Gift Orchid) · S. Golden Lion (Spathoglottis Golden Lion Orchid) · S. Gold Flip (Spathoglottis Gold Flip Orchid) · S. Gold Mine (Spathoglottis Gold Mine Orchid) · S. Gold Tower (Spathoglottis Gold Tower Orchid) · S. gracilis (Spathoglottis Gracilis Orchid) · S. grandiflora (Spathoglottis Grandiflora Orchid) · S. grandifolia (Spathoglottis Grandifolia Orchid) · S. Hawaiian Peach (Spathoglottis Hawaiian Peach Orchid) · S. Heart's Blood (Spathoglottis Heart's Blood Orchid) · S. hybrid a (Spathoglottis Hybrid A Orchid) · S. hybrid b (Spathoglottis Hybrid B Orchid) · S. hybrid c (Spathoglottis Hybrid C Orchid) · S. Ingham Red (Spathoglottis Ingham Red Orchid) · S. Istana (Spathoglottis Istana Orchid) · S. Jane Goodall (Spathoglottis Jane Goodall Orchid) · S. Jean Inouye (Spathoglottis Jean Inouye Orchid) · S. Jodie-K (Spathoglottis Jodie-K Orchid) · S. John Lam (Spathoglottis John Lam Orchid) · S. Joyce Stewart (Spathoglottis Joyce Stewart Orchid) · S. Jubilee (Spathoglottis Jubilee Orchid) · S. Kamehameha (Spathoglottis Kamehameha Orchid) · S. Kewensis (Spathoglottis Kewensis Orchid) · S. Kiara (Spathoglottis Kiara Orchid) · S. kimballiana (Spathoglottis Kimballiana Orchid) · S. Leilani (Spathoglottis Leilani Orchid) · S. Lilioakalani (Spathoglottis Lilioakalani Orchid) · S. Lion City (Spathoglottis Lion City Orchid) · S. Lion of Singapore (Spathoglottis Lion of Singapore Orchid) · S. Little Charmer (Spathoglottis Little Charmer Orchid) · S. lobbii (Spathoglottis Lobbii Orchid) · S. Looi Eng San (Spathoglottis Looi Eng San Orchid) · S. Loretta (Spathoglottis Loretta Orchid) · S. Lucky Stripe (Spathoglottis Lucky Stripe Orchid) · S. Lueng Aroon (Spathoglottis Lueng Aroon Orchid) · S. Madeline Key (Spathoglottis Madeline Key Orchid) · S. Manda'rina Ijm (Spathoglottis Manda'rina Ijm Orchid) · S. Manoa Gold (Spathoglottis Manoa Gold Orchid) · S. Marjorie Carter (Spathoglottis Marjorie Carter Orchid) · S. May Moir (Spathoglottis May Moir Orchid) · S. Menehune (Spathoglottis Menehune Orchid) · S. noni (Spathoglottis Noni Orchid) · S. Nuuanu Gold (Spathoglottis Nuuanu Gold Orchid) · S. Orchid Park (Spathoglottis Orchid Park Orchid) · S. Orphan (Spathoglottis Orphan Orchid) · S. pacifica (Spathoglottis Pacifica Orchid) · S. Parslee (Spathoglottis Parslee Orchid) · S. Parsonsii (Spathoglottis Parsonsii Orchid) · S. Parsons Junior (Spathoglottis Parsons Junior Orchid) · S. Penang Beauty (Spathoglottis Penang Beauty Orchid) · S. petri (Spathoglottis Petri Orchid) · S. Phet Pimarn (Spathoglottis Phet Pimarn Orchid) · S. philippinensis (Spathoglottis Philippinensis Orchid) · S. Pi Gamma Kappa (Spathoglottis Pi Gamma Kappa Orchid) · S. plicata (Boat Orchid) · S. portus-finschii (Spathoglottis Portus-Finschii Orchid) · S. Premier (Spathoglottis Premier Orchid) · S. Primrose (Spathoglottis Primrose Orchid) · S. Primson (Spathoglottis Primson Orchid) · S. pubescens (Buttercup Orchid) · S. pulchra (Spathoglottis Pulchra Orchid) · S. Radiance (Spathoglottis Radiance Orchid) · S. Rhodomelon (Spathoglottis Rhodomelon Orchid) · S. Rimba Ilmu (Spathoglottis Rimba Ilmu Orchid) · S. Robert Francis Southwood (Spathoglottis Robert Francis Southwood Orchid)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 30, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Gustavo A. Romero-González, Germán Carnevali Fernández-Concha, Robert L. Dressler, Lawrence K. Magrath & George W. Argus "Orchidaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 15, 16, 17, 26, 27, 490, 491, 617. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-05-07