Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Croatian:
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in English:
Jerusalem Pear, Chess Tree, Service Tree, Service-Tree, Servicetree, Sorb Tree, True Service Tree, Whitty Pear
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Cormier, Sorbier Domestique
Common Names in German:
Speierling, Sperbe, Sperberbaum, Zahmer
Common Names in Italian:
Sorbo Comune, Sorbo Domestico
Common Names in Japanese:
´ Furanso Nanakamado, Nanakamado
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Rjabina Domašnaja, Rjabina Krymskaja, рябина домашная, рябина крымская
Common Names in Slovenian:
Oskorua, Oskoruina Mukinja
Common Names in Spanish:
Serbal Común, Serbal Común, Sorbo
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, usually deciduous. Winter buds
usually rather large, ovoid
, or spindle-shaped
, sometimes viscid
imbricate, several, glabrous
. Leaves alternate, membranous or herbaceous; stipules caducous
or pinnately compound
or rarely convolute in bud; leaf blade
usually serrate, sometimes nearly entire, venation
, glabrous or pubescent. Inflorescences compound
, rarely simple corymbs or panicles. Hypanthium campanulate
, rarely obconical
. Sepals 5, ovate
or triangular, glabrous, pubescent, or tomentose
, sometimes glandular
. Petals 5, glabrous or pubescent, base
clawed or not. Stamens 15-25(-44) in 2 or 3 whorls, unequal in length
ovoid or subglobose. Carpels 2-5, partly or wholly adnate
to hypanthium; ovary semi-inferior to inferior, 2-5-(-7) loculed, with 2 or 3(or 4) ovules per locule, one usually abortive
; styles 2-5, free
or partially connate
, glabrous or pubescent. Fruit a pome, white, yellow, pink, or brown to orange or red, ovoid or globose
, usually small, glabrous or pubescent, laevigate
or with small lenticels
, apically with sepals persistent
or caducous leaving an annular
, with 2-5(-7) locules, each with 1 or 2 exendospermous seeds; seeds several, with thin perisperm
and endosperm enclosing embryo with compressed
cotyledons.Trees or shrubs, usually deciduous. Winter buds usually rather large, ovoid, conical, or spindle-shaped, sometimes viscid; scales imbricate, several, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves alternate, membranous or herbaceous; stipules caducous, simple or pinnately compound, plicate or rarely convolute in bud; leaf blade usually serrate, sometimes nearly entire, venation craspedodromous or camptodromous, glabrous or pubescent. Inflorescences compound, rarely simple corymbs or panicles. Hypanthium campanulate, rarely obconical or urceolate. Sepals 5, ovate or triangular, glabrous, pubescent, or tomentose, sometimes glandular along margin. Petals 5, glabrous or pubescent, base clawed or not. Stamens 15-25(-44) in 2 or 3 whorls, unequal in length; anthers ovoid or subglobose. Carpels 2-5, partly or wholly adnate to hypanthium; ovary semi-inferior to inferior, 2-5-(-7) loculed, with 2 or 3(or 4) ovules per locule, one usually abortive; styles 2-5, free or partially connate, glabrous or pubescent. Fruit a pome, white, yellow, pink, or brown to orange or red, ovoid or globose to ellipsoid or oblong, usually small, glabrous or pubescent, laevigate or with small lenticels, apically with sepals persistent or caducous leaving an annular scar, with 2-5(-7) locules, each with 1 or 2 exendospermous seeds; seeds several, with thin perisperm and endosperm enclosing embryo with compressed cotyledons.
About 100 species: widely distributed throughout temperate regions of Asia, Europe, and North America; 67 species (43 endemic) in China.
Sorbus species are ornamental plants with attractive, large clusters of white flowers, and most bear colorful fruits. The fruits can be used for making jam, marmalade, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The wood is hard, heavy, and fine-grained, suitable for making furniture or small, carved articles.
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 15-20' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 912 meters (0 to 2,992 feet).
Culture: Space 20-30' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cormus domestica (L.) Spach • Pyrus domestica Ehrh.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Sorbus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 50 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. alnifolia (Korean Mountain Ash) · S. americana (American Mountain Ash) · S. aria (Chess-Apple) · S. aria 'Lutescens' (Whitebeam) · S. arnoldiana (Sorbus) · S. aucuparia (European Mountain Ash) · S. aucuparia x intermedia (European Mountain-Ash) · S. aucuparia 'Asplenifolia' (European Mountain Ash) · S. aucuparia 'Fastigiata' (European Mountain Ash) · S. aucuparia 'Michred' (Cardinal Royal Mountain Ash) · S. aucuparia 'Pendula' (European Mountain Ash) · S. austriaca (Austrian Mountain Ash) · S. californica (California Mountain Ash) · S. cashmiriana (Kashmir Rowan) · S. commixta (Japanese Mountain Ash) · S. decora (Northern Mountain Ash) · S. discolor (Chinese Scarlet Rowan) · S. domestica (Jerusalem Pear) · S. dumosa (Arizona Mountain Ash) · S. groenlandica (Greenland Mountain Ash) · S. hibernica (Irish Whitebeam) · S. hupehensis (Chinese Mountain Ash) · S. hupehensis coral (Coral Fire Mountain Ash) · S. hupehensis 'Coral Fire' (Chinese Mountain Ash) · S. hupehensis 'Pink Pagoda' (Chinese Mountain Ash) · S. hybrida (Oakleaf Mountain Ash) · S. intermedia (Swedish Whitebeam) · S. latifolia (French Hales) · S. leighensis (Leigh Woods Whitebeam) · S. leyana (Ley's Whitebeam) · S. pohuashanensis (Mountain Ash) · S. prattii (Mountain Ash) · S. pseudofennica (Arran Service Tree) · S. reducta (Chinese Dwarf Mountain Ash) · S. rehderiana (Mountain Ash) · S. rufoferruginea 'Longwood Sunset' (Mountain Ash) · S. sambucifolia (Siberian Mountain Ash) · S. scopulina (Cascade Mountain-Ash) · S. sitchensis (Sitka Mountain-Ash) · S. thuringiaca (Mountainash) · S. torminalis (Checkertree) · S. × avonensis (Avon Gorge Whitebeam) · S. × houstoniae (Houston's Whitebeam) · S. x kewensis (Mountain Ash) · S. × proctoris (Proctor's Rowan) · S. × robertsonii (Robertson's Whitebeam) · S. x thuringiaca (Oakleaf Mountain Ash) · S. x thuringiaca 'Fastigiata' (Oakleaf Mountain Ash) · S. 'Ghose' (Naga Mountain Ash) · S. 'Joseph Rock' (Joseph Rock Mountain Ash)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A catalogue of the phaenogamous plants of Great Britain: arranged according to the natural orders: with a copious list of synonyms carefully compiled from Steudel's Nomenclator botanicus, Smith's English flora, Hookers's British flora, Lindley's Synopsis, by Henry Ibbotson. London: H. Bailliere, 1848. url p. 43.
- A complete dictionary of practical gardening: comprehending all the modern improvements in the art: whether in the raising of the various esculent vegetables, or in the forcing and managing of different sorts of fruits and plants, and that of la by Alexander McDonald. .. London: Printed for George Kearsley. .. by R. Taylor. .., 1807. url .
- A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c.. .. / with an introduction to botany. .. By Samuel Frederick Gray. .. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821. url p. 564.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 407.
- A study of cider making in France, Germany, and England with comments and comparisons on American work. By William B. Alwood. Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1903. url p. 75.
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formul. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 88.
- A text-book of botany, by Dr. Eduard Strasburger. .. Dr. Heinrich Schenck, Ludwig Jost [and] Dr. George Karsten. LondonMacmillan1912 url p. 612.
- A topographical history of Staffordshire; including its agriculture, mines and manufactures. Memoirs of eminent natives; statistical tables; and every species of information connected with the local history of the county. With a succinct acco Comp. from the most authentic sources, by William Pitt. Newcastle-under-Lyme, Printed by and for J. Smith, 1817. url p. 581.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 14.
- An encyclopaedia of trees and shrubs: being the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum abridged: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, by J. C. Loudon. London: F. Warne; 1869. url .
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 469.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions, from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian, New York, Scribner[c1913] url .
- Anales de la Sociedad Espaola de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 219, p. 219, p. 367, p. 443, p. 95.
- British flowering plants. By W. F. Kirby. With 120 coloured plates, showing the most important characters of each plant figured; and 119 illustrations in the text. London, Sidney Appleton, 1906. url p. 209, p. 65.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1923 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 19.
- C. E. Hobbs Botanical hand-book of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use. Especially designed as a reference book for druggists and apothecaries. Comp. and pub. by Charles E. Hobbs. Boston, Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url p. 204, p. 215.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url , .
- Cassell's dictionary of practical gardening; an illustrated encyclopdia of practical horticulture for all classes; ed. by Walter P. Wright. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1902. url p. 254.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 682.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 682.
- Chamber's encyclopaedia, a dictionary of universal knowledge. London, Chambers, 1902. url p. 20.
- Cultivation and diseases of fruit trees in the Maltese Islands. By. J. Borg. Malta: Govt. Print. Off., 1922. url p. 294.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 1687, p. 1688.
- English botany, or, Coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: R. Hardwicke, 1863-1886. url .
- Enquiry into plants and minor works on odoùrs and weather signs, London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1916. url p. 466, p. 493.
- Essay on the trees and shrubs of the ancients: being the substance of four lectures delivered before the University of Oxford, intended to be supplementary to those on Roman husbandry, already published. By C. Daubeny. .. Oxford and London: J. H. & J. Parker, 1865. url p. 3, p. 89.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 8.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url , p. 286, p. 287.
- Florigraphia Britannica; or, Engravings and descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns of Britain. London, Groombridge, 1857. url p. 696.
- Florigraphia britannica, or, Engravings and descriptions of the flowering plants and ferns of Britain / by Richard Deakin. London: Groombridge, 1857. url p. 696.
- Flowering plants of the Riviera: a sescriptive account of 1800 of the more interesting species / by H. Stuart Thompson; with an introduction on Riviera vegetation by A. G. Tansley London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1914. url p. 102.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url .
- Gardening for ladies, and, Companion to the flower-garden / by Mrs. Loudon. New York: John Wiley, 1851. url p. 398.
- Gardening in California, San Francisco, A. M. Robertson, 1914. url p. 158.
- Gardening in California, landscape and flower, by John McLaren... San Francisco, A.M. Robertson, 1909. url p. 157.
- Hand-list of Coniferae: grown in the Royal botanic gardens. London: Printed for H. M. Stationery off. by Darling & son, Ltd., 1903. url p. 321.
- Hand-list of trees and shrubs, excluding Coniferae, grown in Arboretum. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1902 url p. 321.
- Hardy ornamental flowering trees and shrubs / by A. D. Webster. London: Smith, Elder, 1908. url p. 146.
- Hortus Mortolensis: enumeratio plantarum in Horto Mortolensi cultarum = Alphabetical catalogue of plants growing in the garden of the late Sir Thomas Hanbury. .. at La Mortola, Ventimiglia, Italy / compiled by Alwin Berger. London: West, Newman, 1912. url p. 256, p. 304.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. LondonPublished for the International Council by the Royal Society of London1901-1920 url p. 488.
- Introduction to botany, containing an explanation of the theory of that science, extracted from the works of Linnaeus, ed. by C. Stewart. Edinburgh, Bell, 1811. url p. 295.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url , p. 104, p. 105, p. 11, p. 55, p. 7, p. 94, p. 95, p. 95, p. 96.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 44 1906 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 321.
- Journal of forestry. Washington: Society of American Foresters, 1917- url p. 513, p. 801.
- Landmarks of botanical history, a study of certain epochs in the development of the science of botany. Washington, Smithsonian Inst., 1909- url p. 121, p. 327.
- Landmarks of botanical history; a study of certain epochs in the development of the science of botany. Part I.--Prior to 1562 A. D. Washington, Smithsonian institution, 1909. url , .
- List of intercepted plant pests / United States Department of Agriculture, Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. [Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.], 1932- url p. 14, p. 22, p. 25, p. 35, p. 70.
- Manual of gardening; a practical guide to the making of home grounds and the growing of flowers, fruits, and vegetables for home use, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917. url .
- Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey and other countries of the East: edited from manuscript journals / London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown. .., 1818. url p. 282.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopdia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 6 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 259.
- North American trees; being descriptions and illustrations of the trees growing independently of cultivation in North America, north of Mexico and the West Indies; with the assistance of John Adolph Shafer. New YorkHolt1908 url p. 427.
- On the popular names of British plants, being an explanation of the origin and meaning of the names of our indigenous and most commonly cultivated species. By R. C. A. Prior. London: Williams and Norgate, 1870. url p. 43.
- Pamphlets on silviculture. [1899- url p. 1314.
- Pennsylvania farm journal Lancaster, Pa.: A.M. Spangler, 1851-1855. url p. 178.
- Range plant handbook. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1937. url .
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 397.
- Seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1903-1913. url p. 69.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 54 1910 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 121, p. 327.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 288, p. 390, p. 467, p. 497.
- Strasburger's Text-book of botany. Rewritten by Dr. Hans Fitting. .. Dr. Ludwig Jost. .. Dr. Heinrich Schenck. .. Dr. George Karsten. London, Macmillan, 1921. url p. 660.
- The American gardener's calendar; adapted to the climates and seasons of the United States. Containing a complete account of all the work necessary to be done. .. for every month in the year; with ample practical directions for performing the same. .. By Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia, Printed by B. Graves, no. 40, North Fourth-Street, for the author, 1806. url p. 588.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 432, p. 432, p. 432.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 101, p. 312, p. 437, p. 460, p. 713.
- The Cottage gardeners' dictionary: describing the plants, fruits, and vegetables desirable for the garden, and explaining the terms and operations employed in their cultivation; with an alphabetical list of synonymes / edited by George W. Johnson. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1863. url p. 853.
- The English flora. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, [1828-30] url p. 364.
- The English flora. London: Longman, 1824 url p. 363, p. 363.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 664.
- The English gardener; or, A treatise on the situation, soil, enclosing and laying-out of kitchen gardens. .. concluding with a kalendar, giving instructions relative to the sowings, plantings, prunings. .. in each month of By William Cobbett. London, The author, 1829. url .
- The Farmer's magazine. [London: Rogerson and Tuxford, 1834-1881. url p. 325.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , p. 171, p. 172, p. 38, p. 392, p. 506, p. 510, p. 577, p. 58, p. 603, p. 70.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 112, p. 313.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 1119, p. 214, p. 258, p. 288, p. 313, p. 314, p. 40, p. 795, p. 799.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 103, p. 103, p. 116, p. 149, p. 166, p. 198, p. 212, p. 228, p. 229, p. 261, p. 286, p. 300, p. 309, p. 314, p. 323, p. 338, p. 368, p. 368, p. 371, p. 406, p. 534, p. 560, p. 562, p. 567, p. 640, p. 67, p. 687, p. 816.
- The Pennsylvania farm journal. Lancaster, Pa.: A.M. Spangler, 1851-1855. url .
- The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800. London, Printed by and for C. and R. Baldwin, 1809. url p. 434.
- The Phytologist: a botanical journal. London, William Pamplin, 1855-1863. url p. 369, p. 392, p. 48, p. 49.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 798.
- The Universal herbal; or, Botanical, medical, and agricultural dictionary; containing an account of all the known plants in the world, arranged according to the Linnean system. Specifying the uses to which they are or may be applied, whether as food, as medicine, or in the a London, Caxton Press url p. 857.
- The art & craft of garden making / Thomas H. Mawson. London: B.T. Batsford;  url p. 286.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 235, p. 29, p. 90.
- The horticulturist: or, the culture and management of the kitchen, fruit, & forcing garden / by J.C. Loudon; edited and revised by William Robinson. London: F. Warne,  url p. 549.
- The identification of trees & shrubs; how to recognize, without previous knowledge of botany, wild or garden trees and shrubs native to the north temperate zone, with 2, 500 diagrams made by the author. New York, Dutton url p. 206.
- The natural history of Pliny. Tr., with copious notes and illustrations, by the late John Bostock and H. T. Riley. London, H. G. Bohn, 1855-57. url p. 371.
- The natural history of plants. By H. Baillon. Tr. by Marcus M. Hartog. London, L. Reeve & co., 1871-88. url p. 438.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 3194, p. 3196, p. 3602.
- The suburban horticulturist; or, An attempt to teach the science and practice of the culture and management of the kitchen, fruit, & forcing garden to those who have had no previous knowledge or practice in these departments of g By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with numerous engravings on wood. London, William Smith, 1842. url p. 552.
- The trees at Mount Vernon / report of Charles Sprague Sargent to the Council of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Washington?: s.l., 1917? url p. 10.
- The trees of Great Britain & Ireland / by Henry John Elwes and Augustine Henry. Edinburgh: Priv. print., 1906-13. url p. 146.
- Timbers and their uses; a handbook for woodworkers, merchants, and all interested in the conversion and use of timber, London, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1919. url , .
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url p. 55.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd series: Botany 5 1896 London. url p. 156, p. 157.
- Trees & shrubs for English gardens. [London]"Country Life, "1902. url .
- Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles / by W. J. Bean. London: J. Murray, 1916. url p. 295.
- Trees and shrubs of the British Isles; native and acclimatised, LondonDent1909 url p. 18.
- Trees and shrubs, hardy in the British isles. LondonJ. Murray1914 url p. 295.
- Wood; a manual of the natural history and industrial applications of the timbers of commerce. LondonE. Arnold1908 url p. 272.
- World Plant Conservation Bibliography WCMC, Royal Botanic Gardens url p. 14, p. 252.
- Yü Te-tsun, Lu Ling-ti, Ku Tsue-chih, Li Chao-luan, Kuan Ke-chien & Chiang Wan-fu. 1974, 1985, 1986. Rosaceae. In: Yü Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 1443; 37: 1516; 38: 1133.
- 37: 1
- 38: 1
- Chiang Wan-fu. 1974, 1985, 1986. Rosaceae. In: Yü
- Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 1
- Te-tsun, Lu Ling-ti, Ku Tsue-chih, Li Chao-luan, Kuan Ke-chien &
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 28, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- International Plant Genetic Resources Institute(IPGRI), EURISCO
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669414
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-38234
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:741711-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 451095
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Lu Ling-ti, Stephen A. Spongberg "Sorbus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 144. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 206.270 meters (676.739 feet), Standard Deviation = 193.710 based on 1,431 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]