Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in English:
Mountain Snowbells, Mountain Tassel
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in German:
Berg Troddelblume, Wald Soldanelle
Common Names in Romanian:
, rarely suffruticose
. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled
, often all basal, simple
, entire to lobed
. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes
, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect
, (4- or) 5(--9) -merous, often heterostylous (Primula) . Calyx persistent
. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic
, rarely absent (Glaux) . Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes
, ± epipetalous
, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments
into a tube
. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular
; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.
The family contains 22 genera and ca. 1000 species, occurring mainly in temperate and mountainous regions of the northern hemisphere. Twelve genera and 517 species are widely distributed throughout China, but are represented mostly in the S and W regions. The centers of diversity for Primula, Androsace, and Omphalogramma are W Sichuan, E Xizang, and NW Yunnan. Lysimachia is also highly developed in provinces S of the Chang Jiang, while Pomatosace is an endemic genus confined to a small area of NW Sichuan and Qinghai.
Many species of Primula and Androsace are cultivated for their attractive flowers as pot plants , in rock gardens, or in garden borders . Some species of Lysimachia are used medicinally. Cyclamen persicum Miller is frequently cultivated as a pot plant.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: blue-violet
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,428 meters (0 to 4,685 feet).
Culture: Space 12-15" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a. (map)
- Chatton, 1925
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Asteranae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967 - Angiosperms
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Novák ex Takht. (1967)
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997, nom. inval.
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
: Willd. Publication
: Enum. Hort. Berol. 192.
An accepted name in the RHS Horticultural Database .
Members of the genus Soldanella
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
S. alpina (Alpine Snowbell) · S. austriaca (Austrian Snowbells) · S. carpatica (Alpine Snowbells) · S. hungarica (Hungarian Snowbells) · S. minima (Least Snowbell) · S. montana (Mountain Snowbells) · S. pusilla (Dwarf Snowbell) · S. villosa (Hairy Snowbells)
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- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 625.
- Alpine flowers for English gardens / London: J. Murray, 1870. url .
- Alpine flowers for gardens: rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs / by W. Robinson. London: John Murray, 1903. url p. 320.
- Alpine flowers for gardens; rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs, by W. Robinson. London, J. Murray, 1910. url p. 320.
- Alpine plants, a practical manual for their culture, with a supplementary essay on The small rock-garden. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1906, 1907. url .
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 165, p. 165.
- Botany of to-day, a popular account of recent notable discoveries. London, Seeley, 1911. url , .
- Catalogue of the African plants London, Printed by order of the Trustees, 1896-1901. url .
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 185.
- Floral illustrations of the seasons, consisting of the most beautiful, hardy and rare herbaceous plants cultivated in the flower garden, from drawings, by Mrs. Edward Roscoe. Engraved by R. Havell. 1851 London, Robert Havell, 1831 [i.e. 1829] url explanation of plate 14.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 1093.
- Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. .. Based on the French work of Messrs. Decaisne and Naudin. ..entitled 'Manuel de l'amateur des jardins, ' and including the original woodcuts by Riocreux and Leblanc. Boston, Estes & Lauriat, 1873. url .
- Hardy flowers. Descriptions of upwards of thirteen hundred of the most ornamental species, with directions for their arrangement, culture, etc.. .. By W. Robinson. London, Macmillan, 1878. url p. 239.
- Hardy perennials and old-fashioned garden flowers. Describing the most desirable plants for borders, rockcries, and shrubberies, and including both foliage and flowering plants. By John Wood. London, L.U. Gill, 1884. url p. 277.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 173.
- Loddiges, C. L. The botanical cabinet: consisting of coloured delineations of plants, from all countries, with a short account of each, directions for management, &c, &c /by Conrad Loddiges & Sons; the plates by George Cooke... London: John & Arthur Arch. .., 1817-1833. url .
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 9 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 405, p. 432.
- Protected Landscapes: experience around the world. Prepared for the International Symposium on Protected Landscapes, Grange-over-Sands, England 5-10 October 1987 IUCN url p. 63.
- Rock gardening for amateurs, by H. H. Thomas assisted by S. Arnott; beautifully illustrated with twelve direct colour photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke, sixty-four half-tone plates and numerous sketches. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1914. url p. 255.
- Rock gardens: how to make and maintain them, by Lewis B. Meredith, with an introduction by F.W. Moore. .. London, Williams & Norgate, 1910. url p. 360.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url , p. 163, p. 762, p. 785, p. 786, p. 788.
- The English flower garden and home grounds; design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture, by W. Robinson. .. Illustrated with many engravings on wood. London: J. Murray, 1900. url p. 818.
- The English rock-garden, by Reginald Farrer. London, Jack, 1919. url p. 372, p. 373.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 126, p. 177, p. 182, p. 189, p. 200, p. 206, p. 212, p. 218, p. 246, p. 257, p. 288, p. 316, p. 400, p. 44, p. 445, p. 449, p. 45.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 324.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , p. 107, p. 168, p. 171, p. 204, p. 206, p. 222, p. 264, p. 308, p. 317, p. 350, p. 363, p. 375, p. 410, p. 419, p. 456, p. 460, p. 566, p. 641, p. 688, p. 696, p. 699, p. 749, p. 92.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 375, p. 405.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 38.
- The anthocyanin pigments of plants. By Muriel Wheldale. Cambridge, University Press, 1916. url p. 18.
- The book of hardy flowers; a simple and complete descriptive guide to the cultivation in gardens of the trees and shrubs, perennial and annual flowers, that are hardy, or are suitable for planting out-of-doors in summer in temp Ed. by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with thirty-two direct color photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke and sixty-four half-tone plates. 1915 New York, Funk & Wagnalls company; [etc., etc.] url p. 417.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 103.
- The natural history of plants, their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution; Dublin, Blackie & son, limited, 1902. url .
- The natural history of plants; their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution. From the German of Anton Kerner von Marilaun, by F.W. Oliver, with the assistance of Marian Busk and Mary F. Ewart. with about 2000 original woodcut illustrations and sixteen plates in colours. London, Blackie, 1896-1897. url p. 975.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url p. 94.
- Transactions of the Botanical Society. Edinburgh: Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 1841-1891. url , , p. 125, p. 230, p. 316, p. 317, p. 413, p. 474, p. 505.
- Transactions of the Edinburgh Naturalists' Field Club. Edinburgh: The Club, 1886. url p. 21, p. 21, p. 23, p. 23.
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Glasgow. Glasgow, The Society. url p. 362.
- Chen Feng-hwai, Hu Chi-ming, Fang Yun-yi, Cheng Chao-zong, Yang Yong-chang & Huang Rong-fu In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (1). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(1): 1-217
- Hu Chi-ming In Chen Feng-hwai & Hu Chi-ming, editors. 1990. Primulaceae (2). Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 59(2): 1-321.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 28, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO, Herbarium GJO
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5855587
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:702882-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 702882-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 649789
- Qiming Hu & Sylvia Kelso "Primulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 15 Page 39. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 566.470 meters (1,858.497 feet), Standard Deviation = 282.340 based on 74 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]