Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Bitter Nightshade, Bittersweet, Bittersweet Nightshade, Blue Nightshade, Climbing Nightshade, Deadly Nightshade, Dulcamara, European Bittersweet, Fellenwort, Felonwood, Scarlet Berry, Woody Nightshade
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Douce-Amère, Morelle, Morelle Douce-Amère, Vigne De Judée
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Japanese:
, small trees
, or climbers
. Stems sometimes prickly, rarely thorny; hairs
, branched, or stellate
, sometimes glandular
. Leaves alternate, solitary or paired
, simple or pinnately compound
, without stipules; leaf blade
, or divided
. Inflorescences terminal
, overtopped by continuing axes, appearing axillary
, or leaf opposed, often apparently umbellate
, racemose, paniculate
, clustered, or solitary flowers, rarely true cymes, sometimes bracteate
. Flowers mostly bisexual
, usually regular, 5-merous, rarely 4- or 6-9-merous. Calyx mostly lobed. Petals united
. Stamens as many as corolla lobes
and alternate with them, inserted
within corolla, all alike or 1 or more reduced; anthers
dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores
. Ovary 2-5-locular; placentation mostly axile
; ovules usually numerous
. Style 1. Fruiting calyx often becoming enlarged, mostly persistent
. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds with copious
endosperm; embryo mostly curved
About 95 genera with 2300 species: best represented in western tropical America, widespread in temperate and tropical regions ; 20 genera (ten introduced ) and 101 species in China.
Some species of Solanaceae are known in China only by plants cultivated in ornamental or specialty gardens: Atropa belladonna Linnaeus, Cyphomandra betacea (Cavanilles) Sendtner, Brugmansia suaveolens (Willdenow) Berchtold & Presl, Nicotiana alata Link & Otto, and Solanum jasminoides Paxton.
, or small trees
, sometimes prickly; hairs
, branched, or stellate
, sometimes glandular
. Leaves solitary or paired
, simple or pinnately compound
, mostly petiolate
; leaf blade
, or parted
. Inflorescences axillary
, or leaf opposed, mostly racemose, paniclulate, umbellate
, fasciculate, or solitary flowers, without bracts; peduncle branched or not, sometimes obsolete
. Flowers bisexual
or andromonoecious, mostly actinomorphic
, often 5-merous. Calyx mostly lobed partway and splitting
further at sinuses. Corolla mostly rotate or stellate. Stamens inserted
high in corolla tube
often connivent or connate
around style, dehiscing by apical pores
, often later splitting longitudinally. Ovary 2-5-locular, with enlarged placentae; ovules axile
. Stigma small. Fruiting calyx persistent, sometimes enlarged and enclosing berry. Berries
mostly juicy. Seeds discoid
; embryo strongly curved
About 1200 species: most in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in the Americas; 41 species in China, about half introduced from elsewhere.
Species Solanum dulcamara
Vines perennial , herbaceous, unarmed , glabrous or sparsely pubescent . Leaves unequal paired , sometimes compound with 1 or 2 pairs of leaflets proximal to main leaflet; petiole 1-2 cm; leaf blade elliptic or ovate-hastate, 4-11 × 2-8 cm, sparsely pubescent, base hastate or with 1 or rarely 2 lobes , margin entire, apex acuminate. Inflorescences extra-axillary , lax , open, many-flowered panicles; peduncle 1-3 cm, branched. Pedicel 5-12 mm, sparsely pubescent. Calyx 1.5-2 × 2-3 mm; lobes deltate, sparsely pubescent. Corolla purple, usually with a yellow eye, 5-8 mm; lobes elliptic-lanceolate, ca. 5 mm. Filaments ca. 0.5 mm; anthers connate , 2-3.5 mm. Style slender, ca. 5.5 mm. Berry red, globose or ovoid , 6-8 mm in diam. Seeds discoid , 1.5-2 mm in diam. Fl. summer, fr. autumn. [source]
Habit: Subshrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: blue-violet
Size: 6-8' tall.
Slopes at forest edges ; 500-3500.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,840 meters (0 to 6,037 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Light Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Solanum (Moench) Dunal Subsect. Dulcamara • Solanum (Moench) Dunal Unranked. Dulcamara
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 2004-2008
Members of the genus Solanum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1665 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
S. acaule (Wild Andean Potato) · S. aculeastrum (Sodaapple Nightshade) · S. adscendens (Sonoita Nightshade) · S. aethiopicum (Ethiopian Nightshade) · S. aethiopicum 'Burkina Faso' (Eggplant) · S. aethiopicum 'Gilo Black Stem' (Japanese Golden Eggs) · S. aethiopicum 'Jaxatu Soxna' (African Eggplant) · S. aethiopicum 'Jilo Tingua Verde Claro' (Indian Eggplant) · S. aethiopicum 'Keur M'bir N'dao' (African Eggplant) · S. aethiopicum 'N'drowa' (African Eggplant) · S. aethiopicum 'N'galam' (African Eggplant) · S. aethiopicum 'N'goyo' (African Eggplant) · S. aethiopicum 'Ruffled Red' (Japanese Golden Eggs) · S. aethiopicum 'Turkish Orange' (Japanese Golden Eggs) · S. americanum (Apple of Sodom) · S. anguivi (African Nightshade) · S. annuum 'Maor' (Bell Pepper) · S. atropurpureum (Potato Vine) · S. aviculare (Kangaroo Apple) · S. bahamense (Bahama Nightshade) · S. bahamense var. bahamense (Bahama Nightshade) · S. bahamense var. luxurians (Bahama Nightshade) · S. bahamense var. rugelii (Rugel's Nightshade) · S. betaceum (Tamarillo) · S. bulbocastanum (Ornamental Nightshade) · S. bulbocastanum bulbocastanum (Ornamental Nightshade) · S. burbankii (Wonderberry) · S. cajanumense (Tomate Silvestre) · S. campechiense (Redberry Nightshade) · S. candidum (Fuzzyfruit Nightshade) · S. capsicastrum (False Jerusalem Cherry) · S. capsicastrum 'Variegatum' (Variegated False Jerusalem Cherry) · S. capsicoides (Cockroach Berry) · S. cardiophyllum (Heaftleaf Horsenettle) · S. caripense (Mamoncillo) · S. carolinense (Apple of Sodom) · S. carolinense var. carolinense (Carolina Horse-Nettle) · S. carolinense var. floridanum (Carolina Horsenettle) · S. carolinense var. hirsutum (Carolina Horsenettle) · S. chacoense (Wild Andean Potato) · S. chenopodioides (Goosefoot Nightshade) · S. circinatum ramosa (Tomate De ) · S. citrullifolium (Melon-Leaf Nightshade) · S. citrullifolium var. citrullifolium (Watermelon Nightshade) · S. citrullifolium var. setigerum (Watermelon Nightshade) · S. clokeyi (Clokey's Nightshade) · S. commersonii (Commerson's Nightshade) · S. commersonii commersonii (Commerson's Wild Potato) · S. conocarpum (Marron Bacoba) · S. coronopus (Green False-Nightshade) · S. crispum 'Glasnerium' (Blue Potato Vine) · S. crispum 'Glasnevin' (Chilean Potato Tree) · S. crispum 'Variegata' (Chilean Potato Tree) · S. davisense (Davis Horsenettle) · S. demissum (Nightshade) · S. dimidiatum (Torrey Nightshade) · S. diphyllum (Amatillo) · S. donianum (Mullein Nightshade) · S. douglasii (Douglass Nightshade) · S. drymophilum (Erubia) · S. dulcamara (Bitter Nightshade) · S. dulcamara var. dulcamara (Bittersweet Nightshade) · S. dulcamara var. villosissimum (Bittersweet Nightshade) · S. dulcamara 'Variegatum' (Nightshade) · S. elaeagnifolium (Bull Nettle) · S. ellipticum (Velvet Potato Bush) · S. endopogon guianensis (Uluwukusi) · S. erianthum (Mullein Nightshade) · S. fendleri (Fendler Horsenettle) · S. fendleri var. fendleri (Fendler's Horse-Nettle) · S. fendleri var. texense (Texan Horsenettle) · S. ferox (Nightshade) · S. furcatum (Forked Nightshade) · S. gayanum (Chilean Nightshade) · S. giganteum (African Holly) · S. gilo (Gilo) · S. glaucophyllum (Waxyleaf Nightshade) · S. gracilius (Slender Nightshade) · S. granulo-leprosum (Solanum) · S. heterodoxum (Melon-Leaf Nightshade) · S. heterodoxum var. heterodoxum (Melonleaf Nightshade) · S. heterodoxum var. novomexicanum (New Mexican Nightshade) · S. heterodoxum var. setigeroides (Melonleaf Nightshade) · S. hindsianum (Hinds' Nightshade) · S. hirsutum (Carolina Horsenettle) · S. hyporhodium (Cocona) · S. incanum (Nightshade) · S. incompletum (Popolo Ku Mai) · S. indicum (Sparrow´s Brinjal (India)) · S. interius (Deadly Nightshade) · S. jamaicense (Jamaica Nightshade) · S. jamesii (Wild Potato) · S. jasminoides (Jasmine Nightshade) · S. jasminoides 'Album' (Potato Vine) · S. jasminoides 'Variegata' (Variegated Potato Vine) · S. khasianum (Nightshade) · S. lanceifolium (Lanceleaf Nightshade) · S. lanceolatum (Kangaroo Apple) · S. lasiocarpum (Nightshade) · S. lasiophyllum (Flannel Bush)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, GEO Biodiversity Day
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Herbarium Willing
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Vegetation surveys of coastal shingle in Great Britain
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2653516
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Sol-2303
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5304283
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:891668-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 101313
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 30414
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SODUV
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 61976
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- Mean = 151.240 meters (496.194 feet), Standard Deviation = 212.980 based on 8,563 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]