Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Arabic:
Common Names in English:
Alexanders, Black Lovage, Black Potherb, Black-Lovage, Horse Parsley, Horse-Parsley
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Italian:
Corinoli, Macerone, Smirnio
Common Names in Portuguese:
Salsa De Cavalo
Common Names in Spanish:
Apio Caballar, Perejil Macedonica
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May. • Flower Color: cream, tan
Size: 36-48" tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 40 meters (130 feet).
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Smyrnium
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A Flora of Berwick-upon-Tweed. By George Johnston, M.D. Edinburgh, J. Carfrae & Son; [etc., etc., ]1829-31. url p. 327, p. 68.
- A monograph of the British Uredineae and Ustilagineae, with an account of their biology including the methods of observing the germination of their spores and of their experimental culture. London, Paul, Trench & Co., 1889. url , .
- A monograph of the British Uredineæ and Ustilagineæ, with an account of their biology including the methods of observing the germination of their spores and of their experimental culture. By Charles B. Plowright. London, K. Paul, Trench, 1889. url p. 199, p. 328.
- A new London flora; or, Handbook to the botanical localities of the metropolitan districts. Compiled from the latest authorities, and from personal observations. London, Hardwick and Bogue, 1877. url p. 68.
- An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. Illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1825. url p. 1223.
- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 1223.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 200, p. 200, p. 268, p. 299.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 8 1897 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 115.
- Beeton's Dictionary of everyday gardening. .. to which is added a monthly calendar of garden work throughout the year. London, Ward, Lock, 1909. url p. 4.
- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url , p. 180, p. 209.
- Bulletin of the Natural History Museum. London: The Natural History Museum, c1993-2002. url p. 97.
- C. E. Hobbs Botanical hand-book of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use. Especially designed as a reference book for druggists and apothecaries. Comp. and pub. by Charles E. Hobbs. Boston, Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url p. 240.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopœial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url .
- Captain Cartwright and his Labrador journal, ed. by Charles Wendell Townsend, with an introduction by Dr. Wilfred T. Grenfell, illustrations from old engravings, photographs, and a map. Boston: D. Estes & company, 1911. url p. 82.
- Contributions to the natural history of the Bermudas. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1884. url p. 140, p. 79.
- Contributions towards a fauna and flora of the county of Cork, read at the meeting of the British association held at Cork in the year 1843. The Vertebrata by Dr. Harvey. The Mollusca, Crustacea and Echinodermata by J.D. Humphreys. The flora by Dr. Power. (Published by the Cuvierian society of Cork) London, J. Van Voorst, 1845. url p. 30.
- English botany, or, Coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: R. Hardwicke, 1863-1886. url .
- English botany, or, coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: G. Bell, 1873. url p. 177.
- Flora calpensis; contributions to the botany and topography of Gibraltar, and its neighbourhood. By E. F. Kelaart. London, J. van Voorst, 1846. url p. 111, p. 213.
- Flora of Sussex; or a list of the flowering plants & ferns found in the county of Sussex, with localities of the less common species. London, Simpkin [et al.]1907. url p. 53.
- Gaelic names of plants (Scottish and Irish): collected and arranged in scientific order, with notes on their etymology, their uses, plant superstitions, etc., among the Celts, with copious Gaelic, English, and scientific names / by John Cameron. Edinburgh: W. Blackwood, 1883. url p. 30.
- Geology of Clydesdale and Arran: embracing also the marine zoology and the flora of Arran, with complete list of species, notes on the rarer insects of Arran, and notices of its scenery and antiquities / by James Bryce. London: R. Griffin, 1859. url p. 167.
- Handbook of British fungi, with full descriptions of all the species, and illustrations of the genera. By M. C. Cooke, M.A. London, Macmillan and co., 1871. url p. 503.
- Handbook to the natural history of Cambridgeshire, ed. by J.E. Marr. .. and A.E. Shipley. .. Cambridge, University press, 1904. url p. 237.
- Hardwicke's science-gossip: an illustrated medium of interchange and gossip for students and lovers of nature. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866- url .
- Ichneumonologia britannica. The ichneumons of Great Britain; a descriptive account of the families, genera and species indigenous to the British islands, together with notes as to classifiation, localitites, habitats, host, etc. By Claude Morley. Plymouth: J.H. Keys, 1903-1914. url p. 34.
- Irish ethno-botany and the evolution of medicine in Ireland. Dublin, M. H. Gill, 1919. url , p. 96.
- Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Truro, Eng., Workers of Cornwall Ltd. url p. 294.
- Midland naturalist. London: Hardwicke and Bogue, 1878- url p. 228, p. 297.
- Monograph of the land & freshwater Mollusca of the British isles. By John W. Taylor. .. with the assistance of W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., the late Charles Ashford, and other well-known conchologists. .. Leeds, Taylor brothers, 1894-19 url p. 149, p. 422.
- Natural history of the district. .., together with a geological account of the rock strata, and the fossils contained in them, Part II [in The Teignmouth, Dawlish, and Torquay Guide., , , by N. T. Carrington] Teignmouth, E. Croydon, 1830. url .
- Nature. London, etc., Macmillan Journals Ltd., etc. url p. 372.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 3 1905 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 259, p. 263, p. 46.
- Observations of a naturalist in the Pacific between 1896 and 1899 / by H.B. Guppy. London: Macmillan and Co., 1903-1906. url p. 624.
- Photomicrographs of botanical studies. Manchester: Flaters, Milborne & McKechnie, [191-?] url .
- Physiology at the farm in aid of rearing and feeding the live stock. Edinburgh and London, W. Blackwood and sons. url p. 394, p. xix.
- Plant Form OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS url p. 338, p. 51.
- Proceedings and transactions of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London: The Society. url p. 152, p. 69, p. 71.
- Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1841- url p. 85, p. 90.
- Rambles in search of wild flowers, and how to distinguish them. London, Journal of horticulture and cottage gardener, 1864. url p. 138.
- Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: under the command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and Captain Frank Turle Thomson, R.N. / prepared under the superintendence of Sir C. Wyville Thomson. Edinburgh: Neill, 1880-1895. url p. 36.
- Rust, smut, mildew & mould. An introduction to the study of microscopic fungi. London, W. H. Allen, 1902. url .
- Rust, smut, mildew & mould; an introduction to the study of microscopic fungi / by M.C. Cooke; illustrated with 269 coloured figures by J.E. Sowerby. 1898 London: W.H. Allen, 1898. url p. 246.
- Rust, smut, mildew, & mould: an introduction to the study of microscopic fungi / by M.C. Cooke. London: R. Hardwicke, 1872. url p. 230.
- Science-gossip. Berlin: R. Friedländer & Sohn, -1902. url p. 112, p. 140, p. 68.
- Textbook of theoretical botany, by R. C. McLean and W. R. Ivimey-Cook. London, Longmans, Green[1951- url p. 1336.
- The American gardener's calendar: adapted to the climates and seasons of the United States: containing a complete account of all the work necessary to be done. .. for every month in the year: with ample practical directions for perf by Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia: A. M'Mahon, 1839. url p. 205.
- The American gardener's calendar; adapted to the climate and seasons of the United States. By Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, 1857. url p. 214.
- The British flora medica, or, History of the medicinal plants of Great Britain / by Benjamin H. Barton, and Thomas Castle. London: E. Cox, 1838. url p. 14.
- The British nature book; a complete handbook and guide to British nature study, embracing the mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects, plants, etc., in the United Kingdom, by S.N. Sedgwick. .. Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, Ltd., 1922. url p. 445.
- The Entomologist's monthly magazine. Oxford [etc.]Entomologist's Monthly Magazine Ltd. [etc.] url p. 178, p. 208.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url , p. 100, p. 138, p. 6, p. 63.
- The Entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1877- url p. 198, p. 198.
- The Gaelic names of plants (Scottish, Irish, and Manx), collected and arranged in scientific order, with notes on their etymology, uses, plant superstitions, etc., among the Celts, with copious Gaeli Glasgow, J. Mackay, 1900. url .
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 12, p. 282, p. 337, p. 39, p. 461.
- The Irish naturalist. Dublin: Eason & Son, Ltd., 1892- url p. 99.
- The Naturalist. 1895 [Doncaster: Yorkshire Naturalists' Union], 1874- url p. 110, p. 17, p. 242, p. 292.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 320, p. 539.
- The Scottish naturalist. Perth [etc.]: Cowan & Co. [etc.], url p. 317.
- The Victoria history of the County of Hertford / edited by William Page. London: Published for the University of London, Institute of Historical Research by Dawsons of Pall Mall,  url .
- The Victoria history of the county of Durham / ed. by William Page, F.S. A. London: [A. Constable and company, limited], 1905- url p. 54.
- The botanical looker-out among the wild flowers of England and Wales, at all seasons, and in the most interesting localities. By Edwin Lees. .. London, Hamilton, Adams & Co., 1851. url p. 13, p. 16, p. 196, p. 279.
- The botany of the Eastern Borders: with the popular names and uses of the plants, and of the customs and beliefs which have been associated with them / by George Johnston. London: J. Van Voorst, 1853. url p. 88.
- The botany of the eastern borders, with the popular names and uses of the plants, and of the customs and beliefs which have been associated with them. London, J. Van Voorst, 1853. url .
- The colours of flowers as illustrated in the British flora. London, Macmillan, 1882. url p. 93.
- The correspondence of John Ray: consisting of selections from the philosophical letters published by Dr. Derham, and original letters of John Ray in the collection of the British Museum. Ed. by Edwin Lankester. London: Printed for the Ray Society, 1848. url p. 203.
- The field and garden vegetables of America: Boston, J. E. Tilton and company, 1865. url p. 305.
- The flora of Berkshire; being a topographical and historical account of the flowering plants and ferns found in the county, with short biographical notices of the botanists who have contributed to Berkshire botany during the Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1897. url p. 234.
- The transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Leeds [etc.] url p. 11.
- The wild-flowers of Selborne and other papers by John Vaughan. London, J. Lane, 1906. url p. 41.
- Topographical botany: being local and personal records towards shewing the distribution of British plants traced through the 112 counties and vice-counties of England, Wales, and Scotland. By Hewett Cottrell Watson. London, B. Quaritch, 1883. url p. 188.
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle-upon-Tyne [et al.]F. & W. Dodsworth [et al.]1865/67-1973. url p. 176.
- Transactions of the Royal Microscopical Society. London: John Churchill and Sons, 1867- url p. 21.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Herbarium Willing
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Dpto de Botánica, Ecología y Fisiología Vegetal
- .Facultad de Ciencias.Universidad de Córdoba
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Museu Botanico Municipal
- SysTax, SysTax
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- University of Vienna, Institute for Botany - Herbarium WU, Herbarium WU
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2669982
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-505946
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3027485
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:849121-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 102147
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 505946
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: SMOL
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 63472